Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest)


The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) is developed to identify the disordered system of postural control. There are 6 different balance control system in the framework, which are biomechanical constraints, stability limits/verticality, anticipatory postural adjustments, postural responses, sensory orientation, and stability in gait.

Intended Population

BESTest can be applied on varied ages and severity of persons who with neurological disorder, such as stroke, Parkinson's disease, vestibular disorders, acquired head injury, cerebral palsy, cerebral ataxia, multiple sclerosis, and other balance disorders.

Method of Use









Original Papers Horak, F. B., Wrisley, D. M., & Frank, J. (2009). The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) to differentiate balance deficits. Physical Therapy, 89(5), 484–98. doi:10.2522/ptj.20080071

Franchignoni, F., Horak, F., Godi, M., Nardone, A., & Giordano, A. (2010). Using psychometric techniques to improve the Balance Evaluation Systems Test: the mini-BESTest. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine : Official Journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 42, 323–331. doi:10.2340/16501977-0537

King, L., & Horak, F. (2013). On the Mini-BESTest: Scoring and the Reporting of Total Scores. Physical Therapy, 93(4), 571–5. doi:10.2522/ptj.2013.93.4.571 (pub med link) note: subscription to Physical Therapy Jounral required for login

Related Papers

Duncan, R. P., Leddy, A. L., Cavanaugh, J. T., Dibble, L. E., Ellis, T. D., Ford, M. P., … Earhart, G. M. (2013). Comparative utility of the BESTest, mini-BESTest, and brief-BESTest for predicting falls in individuals with Parkinson disease: a cohort study. Physical Therapy, 93(4), 542–50. doi:10.2522/ptj.20120302

Franchignoni, F., Godi, M., Guglielmetti, S., Nardone, A., & Giordano, A. (2015). Enhancing the usefulness of the Mini-BESTest for measuring dynamic balance: A Rasch validation study. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 51(4), 429-437.

Godi, M., Franchignoni, F., Caligari, M., Giordano, A., Turcato, A., & Nardone, A. (2013). Comparison of Reliability, Validity, and Responsiveness of the Mini- BESTest and Berg Balance Scale in Patients With Balance Disorders. Journal of the American Physical Therapy Association, 93(2), 158-167.

Mak, M. K. Y., & Auyeung, M. M. (2013). The mini-BESTest can predict Parkinsonian recurrent fallers: a 6-month prospective study. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine : Official Journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 45, 565–71. doi:10.2340/16501977-1144

O’Hoski, S., Winship, B., Herridge, L., Agha, T., Brooks, D., Beauchamp, M. K., & Sibley, K. M. (2014). Increasing the Clinical Utility of the BESTest, Mini-BESTest, and BriefBESTest: Normative Values in Canadian Adults Who Are Healthy and Aged 50 Years and Over. Physical Therapy, 94(3), 334–42. doi:10.2522/ptj.20130104

Padgett, P. K., Jacobs, J. V, & Kasser, S. L. (2012). Is the BESTest at Its Best? A Suggested Brief Version Based on Interrater Reliability, Validity, Internal Consistency, and Theoretical Construct. Physical Therapy, 92(9), 1197–207. doi:10.2522/ptj.20120056