Fundamental motor skills and Sports specific skills

Original Editor - Mohamed Alaa Top Contributors - Wanda van Niekerk and Mohamed Alaa

Motor development

What are Fundamental Motor Skills? Fundamental motor skills are movements that have specific observable patterns. They include:

  • Locomotor skills such as running, jumping, hopping, galloping, rolling, leaping and dodging, horizontal jump, slide.
  • Manipulative skills such as throwing, catching, kicking, striking and trapping, dribble, overhand throw, and underhand roll
  • Stability skills such as balance, twisting, turning and bending

The most essential for primary school children to learn:

• Catch • Kick • Run • Vertical Jump • Overhand Throw • Ball Bounce • Leap • Dodge • Punt • Forehand Strike • Two-hand Side-arm Strike.

How Long Does It Take To Master Fundamental Motor Skills? Fundamental motor skills take a long time to master. Available evidence indicates that it takes between 240 and 600 minutes of instruction to teach children to correctly perform fundamental motor skills.


== The following tips may be useful in teaching fundamental motor skills. ==

Don’t be put off by the length of the list!

Select one or two strategies and practise them in a lesson. In following lessons, attempt another strategy

 After a while, many strategies become a habit.


1)Above all, teach! Help children to learn a fundamental motor skill . Do not passively stand by and observe. Circulate among students when teaching.

2) Use demonstrations, words or phrases that highlight the important part on which the demonstration is focusing . Ask the student to demonstrate the skill to ensure the instructions have been understood before commencing practise.

3) student begin practice immediately after viewing a demonstration.

4) Be patient: teach one component of the skill at a time. Do not provide more than one or two pieces of new information at a time.

5) Repeated practice Italic textwill be necessary before a student will master the skill

6) praise inpublic; remedy in private. Call attention to correct performance rather than to mistakes .

7) Link a key word to a component of a fundamental with the skill like “STEP”


8) Be brief when explaining. Teacher talk should be restricted to less than 60 seconds

9) Keep the purpose of the lesson clear.

10) Break down the fundamental motor skill to be learned into small parts. Teach the first component of the fundamental motor skill, then the second, and then combine both

11) All people make mistakes. Help students to understand that learning most fundamental motor skills is difficult. No one should be ridiculed for their efforts.

12) Accept that children will be active. Involve children in vigorous activity early in the lesson to use up some of their energy.

13) Teach a signal for attention. Some teachers use a whistle, others a hand clap, still others their voice.

14)Set group sizes that are as small as is practical . Misbehaviour often occurs when students are forced to wait their turn.

15). Remind students of safety considerations associated with a fundamental motor skill or game.

 From Walkley, J. & Baldock, R. (Eds.) (1992) Sport It (p. 12)..


 Student Preparation

MUST to provide a 5–10 minute warm-up to prepare the appropriate muscle groups for activity. The warm-up needs to be interesting and enjoyable so that the students participate effectively and are motivated to perform well in the assessment.

Activity Area: Large Muscle

(Active role play centre, space, equipment for gross motor play)

Materials/Equipment

A)Stationary equipment:' • structures, natural climbing equipment, • slides, swings • balancing beams • table tennis, Foosball, air hockey, pool

B)Portable equipment: • different balls (soccer, sports, juggling) • basket ball hoop, and tennis rackets, bats, floor hockey sticks, nets, • punching bag, protective gear • bikes, wheel barrow, scooters, scooter boards, roller blade • hula hoops, jump rope • large blocks


== Diagram 2. Relationship between Fundamental Motor Skills and Specific Sports Skill (Overarm Throw) ==

New Picture (1).png


== Diagram 3. Effects of Fundamental Motor Skills Instruction on the Performance of Sport Specific Skills ==


Diagram 3. Effects of Fundamental Motor Skills Instruction on the Performance of Sport Specific Skills.png


== Age and Sequence of Acquisition of Fundamental Motor Skill Components ==

Age and Sequence of Acquisition of Fundamental Motor Skill Components.png

Each column equals a two month period


 Scoring Directions

The examiner enters a “1” for successful completion, or a “0 “for failed attempt, for each of the performance criterion listed for the skill. There are no partial marks. If the SP refuses to do any of the tests, the examiner should check the “Did not Participate” box on the screen for that skill.


Locomotor skills

1)Run

Student Objective To run as fast as possible along a straight line.

Preparation

Facility: ▼ Measure a 25–30 metre flat straight line, e.g. basketball court sideline, denote each end with marker cones. Allow for safety margins at each end.

Equipment: ▼ Have clipboard, recording sheet and pencil ready for the assessment.


Procedures

• Demonstrate the requirements of the run. • Ask each student in turn to run as fast as they can from one cone until they have gone past the other cone, turn and run back to the start. • Repeat the run once more.

Performance Criteria 1. Eyes focused forward throughout the run 2. Knees bend at right angles during the recovery phase 3. Arms bend at elbows and move in opposition to legs 4. Contact ground with front part of foot 5. Body leans slightly forward

Script for Run: Run as fast as you can and stop at this cone!

Run Skill.png


2)Vertical Jump


"'Student Objective"'

To jump vertically as high as possible from a standing position.

Requirements "'Facility:"' ▼ Mark a cross on a flat non-slip surface. Equipment: ▼ Have clipboard, recording sheet and pencil ready for the assessment.

Procedures • Demonstrate the requirements of the vertical jump. • Ask the student to jump as high as he/she can. • Ensure there is a pause between each jump; if they do not pause, ask them to jump on your command.

Performance Criteria 1. Eyes focused forwards or upwards throughout the jump 2. Crouch with knees bent and arms behind body 3. Forceful upward thrust of arms as legs straighten to take off 4. Contact ground with front part of feet and bend knees to absorb force of landing 5. Balanced landing with no more than one step in any direction


Script for Horizontal Jump: I want to see how high you can jump! One big jump!

Vertical jump skill.png


3)Leap

Student Objective To leap as far as possible.

Preparation

Facility: ▼ On a flat, non-slip surface, mark a 1 metre take-off square using marker cones to denote eachcorner. Place a mark 3 metres back from the take-off square to mark the starting point.

Procedures

• Ask the student to begin at the starting point and to approach the take-off box and leap from within the square as far as they can. • Ask the student to repeat the leap.

Performance Criteria 1. Forward movement sustained throughout the leap 2. Eyes focused forward throughout the leap 3. Take off from one foot and land on the opposite foot 4. During flight legs are straightened with the arms held in opposition to legs 5. Controlled landing without losing balance


Script for Leap: I want you to run up and leap over the bean bag. Watch me leap!

Leap skill.png


4)Dodge

Student Objective To move quickly through a series of cones each placed 3 metres apart in a zigzag formation.

Preparation

Facility: ▼ Place cones on a flat, non-slip surface and mark lines as indicated:

Equipment: ▼ Have clipboard, recording sheet and pencil ready for the assessment.


Procedures

• Ask the student to run following the lines and at each of the cones to dodge as fast as possible. • To help understanding, it may be necessary, particularly with the younger students, to allow students to walk through the zigzag course prior to running. • After running through once, ask the students to walk back to the start and complete the task twice more.

Performance Criteria

1. Eyes focused in direction of travel throughout the dodge 2. Change direction by pushing off outside foot 3. Body lowered during change of direction 4. Change of direction occurs in one step 5. Dodge repeated from right to left, left to right, and so on

 Dodge skill.png

5) Gallop

Script for Gallop:

I am going to gallop like a horse. Watch me gallop! If SP skips instead, say: That was a great skip! Watch me gallop again. Now I want to see if you can gallop.

Gallop skill.png


== Manipulative skills “object control” ==

6)Catch.

Student Objective To catch a tennis ball thrown underarm 2–3 metres high from a distance of: 5 metres (5–7years), 10 metres (8–10 years) or 15 metres (11–12 years).

Preparation Facility: ▼ Measure a 2 metre square denoted by marker cones placed at each corner. Place a mark on theback line to mark the starting position.

Equipment: ▼ Place at least 6 tennis balls in a bucket near the position from where the ball will be tossed

▼ Have clipboard, recording sheet and pencil ready for assessment.

Procedures • Demonstrate the test requirements of the catch. • Ask 1 or 2 students to stand behind the catching square to collect any missed balls. • Ask the student to stand in the middle of the square, catch the tossed ball and place it on the ground beside him/ her. Instruct the student to leave any missed catches. • Allow the student to pause between each catch.

Performance Criteria 1. Eyes are focused on the ball throughout the catch 2. Preparatory position with elbows bent and hands infront of body 3. Hands move to meet the ball 4. Hands and fingers positioned correctly to catch the ball 5. Catch and control the ball with hands only 6. Elbows bend to absorb force of the ball


Script for Catch:

Watch me catch the ball. Then I am going to throw the ball to you and you are going to catch it.

Catch skill.png


7)Kick

Student Objective To kick a stationary ball towards a target 10–20 metres away.

Preparation


Facility: ▼ Place a mark (cross) on a flat non-slip surface for placement of a ball to be kicked. Draw a line 3 metres back from the mark as a starting point for a student. Make sure the area allows for easy return of the kicked balls for the next student (i.e. don’t kicktowards a fenced area which divides an adjoining road).


Equipment: ▼ Place the balls in a container (i.e. a large crate) near the mark.Have clipboard, recording sheet and pencil ready for assessment

Procedures • Demonstrate the requirements of the kick. • Organise 1 or 2 students to stand 10–20 metres in front of the kicker so as to retrieve any balls kicked towards them. • Place a ball on the spot marked (a bean bag may be used to prevent a ball rolling away). • Ask the student to kick the ball hard and return to the starting line after each kick. • Allow a pause between each kick.

Performance Criteria 1. Eyes are focused on the ball throughout the kick 2. Step forward with non-kicking foot placed near the ball 3. Bend knee of kicking leg during the backswing for the kick 4. Hip extension and knee flexion of at least 90º during preliminary kicking movement 5. Contact the ball with the top of the foot 6. Forward and sideward swing of arm opposite kicking leg 7. Kicking leg follows through towards the target after ball contact


Script for Kick:

Watch me run up and kick the ball!

Kick skill.png


8)Overhand Throw

Student Objective To throw a beanbag towards a target 10–20 metres away.

Preparation Facility: ▼ Marked 2 metre square denoted by marker cones placed at each corner. Place a mark on the back line to mark the starting position. Place a target (i.e. cone) 10–20 metres away.

Equipment: ▼ Place at least 6 beanbags next to the starting position. Have clipboard, recording sheet and pencil ready for the assessment.

Procedures • Demonstrate the requirements of the overhand throw. • Ask the student to throw the beanbag overhand, hard towards the target. • Ask the student to pause between each throw. • At the end of the throws, the student should collect the beanbags and return them to the starting line.

Performance Criteria 1. Eyes are focused on the target throughout the throw 2. Stand side-on to the target 3. Throwing arm nearly straightened behind the body 4. Step towards the target with foot opposite throwing arm during the throw 5. Marked sequential hip to shoulder rotation during the throw 6. Throwing arm follows through down and across the body


Script for Overhand throw: Watch me throw the ball as hard as I can. Now you throw the ball.

Overhand throw skill.png


9)Ball Bounce “Dribble”

Student Objective To bounce a regulation basketball (or 20 centimetre playground ball) at least 5 consecutive times when in a stationary position.

Preparation

Facilities: ▼ Place a mark on a flat hard surface.

Equipment: ▼ Place a basketball next to the mark.Have clipboard, recording sheet and pencil ready for the assessment.

Procedures • Demonstrate the requirements of the ball bounce. • Ask the student to stand on the mark, side-on to the video camera/teacher, and start bouncing the ball on the command “go” and to keep bouncing until given the command “stop”.

Performance Criteria 1. Eyes focused forward throughout the bounce 2. Contact the ball with the fingers of one hand at about hip height 3. Wrist and elbows bend then straighten to push the ball 4. Hips and knees slightly flexed during the bounce 5. Ball bounces in front of and to the side of the body


Script for Dribble: Bounce the ball 4 times and catch!

Bounce the ball skill.png


10) Two-Hand Side-Arm Strike

Student Objective To strike a 8–10 centimetre ball thrown from 5–10 metres away with a lightweight softball/baseball bat in a forward direction. Preparation

Facility ▼ Measure a 2 metre square denoted by marker cones placed at each corner. Place a cross on the back line to mark the starting position. Mark a spot 5–10 metres from the centre of the square from which to toss a ball on the full to be struck. Instruct students to begin from the starting point, but indicate that they may move anywhere within the designated square to strike the ball.

Equipment: ▼ Place the bat near the starting position and a bucket of at least six 8–10 centimetre balls next to the position from where the balls will be tossed. Have clipboard, recording sheet and pencil ready for the assessment.camera.

Procedures • Demonstrate the requirements of the two-hand side-arm strike. • Throw the ball towards the student from 5–10 metres away. Only count those throws that go past the student at a height between the student’s knees and shoulders. • Ask the student to strike the ball past the person throwing the ball. • Be sure the student returns to the starting position after each strike. • Instruct the thrower to allow a pause between each strike.

Performance Criteria 1. Eyes are focused on the ball throughout the strike 2. Preferred hand grips bat above non-preferred hand 3. Stand side-on to the target 4. Bat held behind shoulder prior to the strike 5. Step towards target with foot opposite preferred hand during the strike 6. Marked sequential hip to shoulder rotation during the strike 7. Ball contact made opposite front foot with straight arms 8. Follow through with bat around body


Script for Striking a Ball: Watch me hit the ball!

[[File:Two-Hand Side-Arm Strike skill.png ]]


11)Underhand roll


Script for Underhand roll: Roll the ball between the cones!

Under-hand Roll skill.png


== Program Planning ==

Program planning.png


==Beginner level of skill learning==

 Introduce major aspects of skill only  Provide a demonstration of the skill the help form a mental picture  Let the learner to try out the skill  Provide plenty of opportunity for exploration of the skill and self discovery of the general principles  If possible compare the new skill to others that the student may be familiar with  Provide immediate, precise and positive feedback  Focus on the skill technique not the result


== Immediate level of skill learning ==

 Provide numerous opportunities for practice and skill application  Devise practice opportunities that progressively focus on greater skill refinement  Be able to analyse skills and provide constructive feedback  Allow for individual differences in the rate of skill learning  Practice at the rate and in the manner that the skill will be used during “real life” performance


== Advanced level of skill learning ==

 Structure practise sessions that duplicate game like situations  Structure practice sessions that promote intensity  Provide encouragement, motivation and positive support  Offer tips on strategy and tactics  Provide feedback that focuses on specific aspects of the skill  Allow for individual differences in technique  Focus on outcomes rather than process


== REFERENCES ==

1)Fundamental Motor Skills

  A Manual for Classroom Teachers

© State of Victoria Department of Education, Victoria, 1996 Printed May 1996 Updated October 1996 Reprinted 1999 Updated as a web based resource in relation to the Victorian Essential Learning Standards 2009

2)National health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES)

  National Youth Fitness Survey (NYFS)
 Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) 
 Procedures Manual

3) The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Victorian Branch