Goniometry: Shoulder Internal & External Rotation
Shoulder internal rotation (IR)
Shoulder external rotation (ER)
Patient is supine with the shoulder abducted to 90 degrees and the length of the humerus on the test side is supported on the plinth
Forearm is in neutral position
|AXIS LOCATION||STATIONARY ARM||MOVEMENT ARM|
|olecranon process of the ulna||perpendicular to the floor (vertical)||in line with the ulnar side of the forearm from the axis point to the ulnar styloid process|
Expected range of motion for IR is 0- 70 degrees.
Expected range of motion for ER is 0- 90 degrees
- Norkin CC, White DJ. Measurement of joint motion: a guide to goniometry. FA Davis; 2016 Nov 18.