Grade I Cervical Sprain

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Introduction

The cervical sprain from whiplash is one of the injuries that occurs most frequently in minor or moderate traffic accidents. Where the cervical spine makes a sudden cervical hyperextension movement and then a cervical hyperflexion movement. This mechanism of injury causes stretching and compression of the muscles, ligaments, and sometimes also the bones and nerves of the cervical spine.

Cervical sprain/strain/tension mainly relates to acute pain from soft tissue injury including muscles, tendons and ligaments, bringing about neck stiffness, fatigue, and range of motion restriction.[1] In road traffic accidents and in the work place and at home, chronic neck pain is possibly 2nd only to chronic lower back pain related to injury and disability claims. At any specified time, about 10% of the population report having neck pain on at least seven days/month, at least 80% of the population reports neck pain of indefinite duration at some time, and in population based studies incidence of acute neck pain occurs 20-30% yearly. These figures are from different countries, there is limited data that in Asia neck pain may be less common.[2] It has been concluded that 14%–42% of patients with whiplash injury report symptoms 6 months postinjury, and 10% of those patients have constant severe pain.[3]

It's considered grade I whiplash because the injured person presents neck pain and / or joint stiffness, does not present neurological or bone alterations.

Physiopathology of whiplash grade I

Whiplash syndrome consists of hyperextension of the cervical spine followed by abrupt hyperflexion. It can cause different types of injuries. In the cervical sprain or whiplash grade I. The lesions that stand out are in the soft tissues, such as the muscles of the anterior face of the neck such as the sternocleidomastoid, scalenes and the long muscles of the neck. The injury may present with intramuscular hemorrhage and / or edema.

Symptomatology of whiplash grade I

Pain zone
  • Limitation of range of motion
  • Cervical pain
  • Muscular weakness
  • Headache
  • Disturbance or loss of balance

Effects of mobilization and exercise on neck muscular spasm and pain

In current study researcher observed that the combined therapy, mobilization + exercise, was the best treatment option for treating patients with neck pain and spasm. Although mobilization was better for treating patients with neck pain and spasm, but it was more effective than exercise. So it was concluded that combined therapy, mobilization + exercise, was the best treatment option for treating patients with neck pain and spasm.[2]

References

  1. Choi AR, Shin JS, Lee J, et al. Current practice and usual care of major cervical disorders in Korea: A cross-sectional study of Korean health insurance review and assessment service national patient sample data [published correction appears in Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Jun;98(26):e16335]. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96(46):e8751. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000008751.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Muhammad Tariq Rafiq, Zahoor Elahi, Shafqat Perveen, Nazia Jabeen. Effects of Mobilization and Exercise on Neck Muscular Spasm and Pain. International Journal of Nursing and Health Science. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2016, pp. 43-47.
  3. Anderson C, Yeung E, Tong T, et al. A narrative review on cervical interventions in adults with chronic whiplashassociated disorder. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine 2018;4:e000299. doi:10.1136/ bmjsem-2017-000299