Meningoencephalitis

Introduction

Meningoencephalitis is a very serious neurological condition resembling both meningitis and encephalitis - inflammation of the the meninges (covering of the CNS) and inflammation of the brain tissues respectively. [1]

Causes

Meningoencephalitis is caused by various bacterial, viral and protozoan infection. Some of them are; [2]

  1. Bacteria

2. Viruses [3]

  • Tick-borne meningoencephalitis
  • West Nile virus
  • Measles
  • Epstein-Barr virus
  • Varicella-zoster virus
  • Enterovirus
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1
  • Herpes simplex virus type 2
  • Mumps virus
  • HIV

3. Protozoas

  • Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, e.g., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, Sappinia diploidea
  • Trypanosoma brucei
  • Toxoplasma gondii (sporozoa)

Prognosis

As the disease is a combination of two very serious neurological conditions, it is linked with severe morbidity and high mortality rate.

Clinical Presentation

Patients present with symptoms of both meningitis and encephalitis.

Diagnosis

Meningoencephalitis can be dignosed through any of the following like meningitis and encephalitis;

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • Lumbar puncture (spinal tap)
  • Urine analysis
  • Blood test

Management / Intervention

Intervention is generally symptomatic and may include various management strategies of meningitis and encephaliti depending on which symptoms are expressed as related to both medical and Physiotherapy managements.

References

  1. Orgogozo JM, Gilman S, Dartigues JF, et al. Subacute meningoencephalitis in a subset of patients with AD after Aß42 immunization. Journal of Neurology. 2003; 61 (1): 46–54.
  2. Newton PJ, Newsholme W, Brink NS, Manji H, Williams IG, Miller RF. Acute meningoencephalitis and meningitis due to primary HIV infection. British Medical Journal (Clinical research ed.). 2002;325 (7374): 1225–7.
  3. Del Saz SV, Sued O Falcó V, Agüero F Crespo M, Pumarola T, Curran A, Gatell JM.  Acute meningoencephalitis due to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in 13 patients: clinical description and follow-up. Journal of neurovirology. 2008;14 (6): 474–9.