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Introduction[edit | edit source]
Meningoencephalitis is a very serious neurological condition resembling both meningitis and encephalitis - inflammation of the the meninges (covering of the CNS) and inflammation of the brain tissues respectively. 
Meningoencephalitis is usually a result of direct embolization to meningeal vessels, with subsequent parenchymal or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) invasion of the infecting organism.
Causes[edit | edit source]
Meningoencephalitis is caused by various bacterial, viral and protozoan infection. Some of them are; 
- Listeria monocytogenes
- Neisseria meningitidis
- Rickettsia prowazekii
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae
- Borrelia (Lyme disease)
- Tick-borne meningoencephalitis
- West Nile virus
- [Epstein-Barr Virus|Epstein-Barr]] virus
- Varicella-zoster virus
- Herpes simplex virus type 1
- Herpes simplex virus type 2
- Mumps virus
- Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, e.g., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, Sappinia diploidea
- Trypanosoma brucei
- Toxoplasma gondii (sporozoa)
Prognosis[edit | edit source]
As the disease is a combination of two very serious neurological conditions, it is linked with severe morbidity and high mortality rate.
Clinical Presentation[edit | edit source]
Patients present with symptoms of both meningitis and encephalitis.
Diagnosis[edit | edit source]
Meningoencephalitis can be dignosed through any of the following like meningitis and encephalitis;
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
- Electroencephalography (EEG)
- Lumbar puncture (spinal tap)
- Urine analysis
- Blood test
Management / Intervention[edit | edit source]
Intervention is generally symptomatic and may include various management strategies of meningitis and encephaliti depending on which symptoms are expressed as related to both medical and Physiotherapy managements.
References[edit | edit source]
- Orgogozo JM, Gilman S, Dartigues JF, et al. Subacute meningoencephalitis in a subset of patients with AD after Aß42 immunization. Journal of Neurology. 2003; 61 (1): 46–54.
- Newton PJ, Newsholme W, Brink NS, Manji H, Williams IG, Miller RF. Acute meningoencephalitis and meningitis due to primary HIV infection. British Medical Journal (Clinical research ed.). 2002;325 (7374): 1225–7.
- Del Saz SV, Sued O Falcó V, Agüero F Crespo M, Pumarola T, Curran A, Gatell JM. Acute meningoencephalitis due to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in 13 patients: clinical description and follow-up. Journal of neurovirology. 2008;14 (6): 474–9.