Meningoencephalitis

Original Editor - Kehinde Fatola
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Introduction[edit | edit source]

Meningoencephalitis is a very serious neurological condition resembling both meningitis and encephalitis - inflammation of the the meninges (covering of the CNS) and inflammation of the brain tissues respectively. [1]

Meningoencephalitis is usually a result of direct embolization to meningeal vessels, with subsequent parenchymal or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) invasion of the infecting organism.

Causes[edit | edit source]

Meningoencephalitis is caused by various bacterial, viral and protozoan infection. Some of them are; [2]

  1. Bacteria

2. Viruses [3]

  • Tick-borne meningoencephalitis
  • West Nile virus
  • Measles
  • [Epstein-Barr Virus|Epstein-Barr]] virus
  • Varicella-zoster virus
  • Enterovirus
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1
  • Herpes simplex virus type 2
  • Mumps virus
  • HIV

3. Protozoas

  • Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, e.g., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, Sappinia diploidea
  • Trypanosoma brucei
  • Toxoplasma gondii (sporozoa)

Prognosis[edit | edit source]

As the disease is a combination of two very serious neurological conditions, it is linked with severe morbidity and high mortality rate.

Clinical Presentation[edit | edit source]

Patients present with symptoms of both meningitis and encephalitis.

Diagnosis[edit | edit source]

Meningoencephalitis can be dignosed through any of the following like meningitis and encephalitis;

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • Lumbar puncture (spinal tap)
  • Urine analysis
  • Blood test

Management / Intervention[edit | edit source]

Intervention is generally symptomatic and may include various management strategies of meningitis and encephaliti depending on which symptoms are expressed as related to both medical and Physiotherapy managements.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Orgogozo JM, Gilman S, Dartigues JF, et al. Subacute meningoencephalitis in a subset of patients with AD after Aß42 immunization. Journal of Neurology. 2003; 61 (1): 46–54.
  2. Newton PJ, Newsholme W, Brink NS, Manji H, Williams IG, Miller RF. Acute meningoencephalitis and meningitis due to primary HIV infection. British Medical Journal (Clinical research ed.). 2002;325 (7374): 1225–7.
  3. Del Saz SV, Sued O Falcó V, Agüero F Crespo M, Pumarola T, Curran A, Gatell JM.  Acute meningoencephalitis due to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in 13 patients: clinical description and follow-up. Journal of neurovirology. 2008;14 (6): 474–9.