The skull (also known as cranium) consists of 22 bones which can be subdivided into 8 cranial bones and 14 facial bones.
The main function of the bones of the skull along with the surrounded meninges, is to provide protection and structure. Protection to the brain (cerebellum, cerebrum, brainstem) and orbits of the eyes. Structurally it provides an anchor for tendinous and muscular attachments of the muscles of the scalp and face. The skull also protects various nerves and vessels that feed and innervate the brain, facial muscles and skin.
|Cranial Bones||Sutures||Facial Bones|
|Strong, fibrous, elastic bands of tissues that binds / connect the cranial bones together.
The base of skull has numerous foramina that allow the entry lot of vessels and nerves, including the cranial nerves.
- The Optic Nerve and Ophthalmic Artery passes through the Optic Nerve Canal.
- Superior orbital fissure transmits the Oculomotor Nerve, Trochlear Nerve, Ophthalmic branch of the Trigeminal Nerve and the Abducens Nerve.
- Internal Carotid Artery enters through the Carotid Canal.
- The Mandibular Branch of the Trigeminal Nerve exits the skull through the Foramen Rotunda.
- The Middle Meningeal Artery passes through the Foramina Spinosum.
- Foramina Magnum: allows the Spinal Cord through the base of skull into the Spinal Canal of the Vertebral Column.
- Morton DA, Foreman K, Albertine KH. eds. 'The Big Picture: Gross Anatomy, 2e' New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com.uplib.idm.oclc.org/content.aspx?bookid=2478§ionid=202020790 Accessed April 08, 2019.
- Anderson BW, Al Kharazi KA. Anatomy, Head and Neck, Skull. [Updated 2019 Feb 8]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499834/
- Gaylene Ewing. Cranial bones. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y1ExSUGUsU0 [last accessed 8/4/2019]
- Gaylene Ewing. Facial bones. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q0lBvcoHJqk [last accessed 8/4/2019]