The Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ)

Original Editor - Rucha Gadgil

Top Contributors - Rucha Gadgil  

Introduction


The Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) is a simple, freely available, and widely used tool for assessment of the presence and severity of various post-concussion symptoms. The questionnaire was first published in 1995 to assess patients' psychosocial functioning post-concussion[1]. It contains 16 questions targeting physical, cognitive and behavioural domains. It was modified by Eyres et al. is 2005 into RPQ Modified Scoring System (RPQ 13/ RPQ-3)[2].

Intended Population

Individuals showing symptoms of Concussion after a head trauma/ brain injury.[3]

Method of Use

Equipment Required:

Questionnaire based: pen and paper

Training Required:

None

Time Required:

5-10 mins

Instrument

The questionnaire is a self-reported questionnaire containing 16 questions[1]. They are asked if after the accident they experienced any:

Sr. No. Questions Scoring
0 1 2 3 4
1 Headaches
2 Feelings of Dizziness
3 Nausea and Vomiting
4 Noise Sensitivity

Easily upset by loud noise

5 Sleep Disturbance
6 Fatigue, tiring more easily
7 Being Irritable, easily angered
8 Feeling Depressed or Tearful
9 Feeling frustrated or Impatient
10 Forgetfulness, poor memory
11 Poor Concentration
12 Taking Longer to Think
13 Blurred Vision
14 Light Sensitivity,

Easily upset by bright light

15 Double Vision
16 Restlessness
Are you experiencing any other difficulties?
1
2

Scoring:  

0= Not experienced at all

1 = No more of a problem

2 = A mild problem

3 = A moderate problem

4 = A severe problem

Lower the Score, better the conditions.

In the modified version[2]:

RPQ-3: Score of first three questions, Scoring is 0-12; if there is a higher score on the RPQ-3, earlier reassessment and closer monitoring is

recommended.

RPQ-13: Sore of next 13 questions, Scoring is 0-52; later cluster of symptoms; greater impact on participation, psychosocial functioning and lifestyle.

Psychometric properties

Reliability[4][5]:

For Head Injury: Excellent test re-test reliability, Excellent inter-rater reliability.

For Mild TBI: Adequate test re-test reliability, Adequate inter-rater reliability.

Validity[6]:

Excellent validity with Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale.

Clinical Significance

The questionnaire can be repeated to monitor a patient’s progress over time with changes seen in severity of symptoms, or the range of symptoms. Management can be planned likewise[7].

Additional Information

Find Additional details here

Find the Questionnaire here

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 King, N. S., Crawford, S., Wenden, F.J., Moss, N.E.G. Wade, D.T. The Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire: a measure of symptoms commonly experienced after head injury and its reliability. Journal of Neurology. 1995. 242, 587-592
  2. 2.0 2.1 Eyres, S., Carey, A., Gilworth, G., Neumann, V., Tennant, A. Construct validity and reliability of the Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire. Clinical Rehabilitation. 2005. 19, 878-887
  3. Crawford S, Wenden FJ, Wade DT. The Rivermead head injury follow up questionnaire: a study of a new rating scale and other measures to evaluate outcome after head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1996 May;60(5):510-4. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.60.5.510.
  4. King NS, Crawford S, Wenden FJ, Caldwell FE, Wade DT. Early prediction of persisting post-concussion symptoms following mild and moderate head injuries. Br J Clin Psychol. 1999 Mar;38(1):15-25. doi: 10.1348/014466599162638. 
  5. Asselstine J, Kristman VL, Armstrong JJ, Dewan N. The Rivermead Post-Concussion Questionnaire score is associated with disability and self-reported recovery six months after mild traumatic brain injury in older adults. Brain Inj. 2020;34(2):195-202. doi: 10.1080/02699052.2019.1682670
  6. de Guise E, Bélanger S, Tinawi S, Anderson K, LeBlanc J, Lamoureux J, Audrit H, Feyz M. Usefulness of the rivermead postconcussion symptoms questionnaire and the trail-making test for outcome prediction in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2016;23(3):213-22. doi: 10.1080/23279095.2015.1038747. 
  7. Potter, S., Leigh, E., Wade, D., Fleminger, S. The Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire. Journal of Neurology, October 2006.1-12.