Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

Summary TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury) Is A Type Of Trauma Which Is Important Because Is Related To The Central System Of The Movement, Thinking, And Sensory. Many Country Suffers With Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Because It Effect Economic Culture And Relation Between People. In This Search Of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) I Write The Definition Of The TBI Which Is Injury To The Brain From Traumatic Force Also I Write Mechanism Of The Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Which Can Be Caused By Many Causes Such As (Falls, Assault, Struck, Traffic Accident, Other Causes) And The Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Is Can Be Happen In The Male, Young People, And Olds More Than Other. Signs And Symptoms Of The Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Can Be Classified To Mild, Moderate, And Several. Which Can Divide To Cognitive And Physical Symptoms. And Children Have A Special Symptom. Almost Symptoms Me Be Problems In Balance, Fatigue, Memory Disorder, And Headache. And The Examined And Diagnosed Of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Has An Area In My Search, I Write Different Assessment According To (Medical Attention, Motor And Sensory Defect). And In The Last Of My Search I Talk About Medical And Physiotherapeutic Interventions To Treatment A Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) And I Talk About What The Objectives Of The Physical Therapy By The Treatment Which In General To Change TBI's Patent From Dependent People To Independent People By Restore Possible Balance And Movement.

Introduction TBI Injury Is More Properly Defined As An Alteration In Brain Function Manifest As Confusion, Altered Level Of Consciousness, Seizure, Coma, Or Focal Sensory Or Motor Neurologic Deficit Resulting From Blunt Or Penetrating Force To The Head. In Mild TBI,

Subtle Behavioral And Neuropsychological Changes May Be The Only Symptom(S)1, It Is A Common Problem In Society Leading To Morbidity And Mortality2, And It Is A Major Cause Of Epilepsy1. The Term Head Injury Potentially Covers Not Only Those Injuries Resulting In A Change In Brain Function (An Altered Level Of Conscious, Confusion, Coma, Convulsions, Or Other Signs Of Neurological Deficit) But Also Injuries To The Bones And Soft Tissues Of The Face And Head But Not Involving The Brain3. According To The World Health Organization, Will Surpass Many Diseases As The Major Cause Of Death And Disability By The Year 20203. The Burden Of TBI Is Manifest Throughout The World, And Is Especially Prominent In Low And Middle Income Countries Which Face A Higher Preponderance Of Risk Factors For Causes Of TBI And Have Inadequately Prepared Health Systems To Address The Associated Health Outcomes3. (TBI) Is A Fairly Common Problem In Saudi Arabia And Has A Significant Impact On Victims, Caregivers And The Health Care System2. Each Year In The USA, Approximately 1.4 Million Persons Sustain A TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury). And Every 21 Seconds, One Person In The United Stated Sustains A TBI. With An Estimated 10 Million People Affected Annually By TBI. A Case Study From Yemen Revealed A Prevalence Of TBI Of 219 Cases Per 100,000 (160 In Adults And 480 In Children Per 100,000 Population). In The European Union, TBI Accounts For One Million Hospital Admissions Per Year3. Males Are About Twice As Likely As Females To Experience A TBI4.

Definition An Injury To The Brain Arising From An External Physical Force5. Thomas Duncan And Javier Romero Define The TBI " An Injury To The Brain Resulting In Disorders Of Motor, Sensory And/Or Cognitive Function "6. Accident Compensation Corporation (N.Z.), New Zealand Guidelines Group Define The TBI "An Acute Brain Injury Resulting From Mechanical Energy To The Head From External Physical Forces. Operational Criteria For Clinical Identification Include One Or More Of The Following: · Confusion Or Disorientation

· Loss Of Consciousness

· Post-Traumatic Amnesia

· Other Neurological Abnormalities, Such As Focal Neurological Signs, Seizure And/Or Intracranial Lesion" 7.

Mechanism Of The TBI The Leading Causes Of TBI Are Falls, Motor Vehicle Crashes, Struck By Or Against Events, And Assaults, Respectively, And Blasts Are A Leading Cause Of TBI Among Active Duty Military Personnel In War Zones4. Other Studies Suggest That Injuries Involving Loss Of Consciousness May Account Only For Between 8% And 19.2% Of Sports-Related TBIs4.

TBI Occurs In Higher Frequencies In The Very Young, Adolescent And Young Adult, And Elderly. Males Are At Higher Risk Of TBI, Particularly During Adolescence And Young Adulthood. Minorities Have A Higher Incidence Of TBI, Although This Is Confounded By Socioeconomic Factors1. Signs And Symptoms Of TBI

§ Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Physical Symptoms O Loss Of Consciousness For A Few Seconds To A Few Minutes O No Loss Of Consciousness, But A State Of Being Dazed, Confused Or Disoriented O Headache

O Nausea Or Vomiting O Fatigue Or Drowsiness O Difficulty Sleeping O Sleeping More Than Usual O Dizziness Or Loss Of Balance Sensory Symptoms O Sensory Problems, Such As Blurred Vision, Ringing In The Ears, A Bad Taste In The Mouth Or Changes In The Ability To Smell O Sensitivity To Light Or Sound · Cognitive Or Mental Symptoms O Memory Or Concentration Problems O Mood Changes Or Mood Swings O Feeling Depressed Or Anxious § Moderate To Severe Traumatic Brain Injuries · Physical Symptoms O Loss Of Consciousness From Several Minutes To Hours O Persistent Headache Or Headache That Worsens O Repeated Vomiting Or Nausea O Convulsions Or Seizures O Dilation Of One Or Both Pupils Of The Eyes O Clear Fluids Draining From The Nose Or Ears O Inability To Awaken From Sleep O Weakness Or Numbness In Fingers And Toes O Loss Of Coordination · Cognitive Or Mental Symptoms O Profound Confusion O Agitation, Combativeness Or Other Unusual Behavior O Slurred Speech O Coma And Other Disorders Of Consciousness § Children's Symptoms · Change In Eating Or Nursing Habits · Persistent Crying And Inability To Be Consoled · Unusual Or Easy Irritability · Change In Ability To Pay Attention · Change In Sleep Habits · Sad Or Depressed Mood · Loss Of Interest In Favorite Toys Or Activities8.

Examined And Diagnosed TBI § Assessment Of Need For Medical Attention · Glasgow Coma Scale · Loss Of Consciousness · Post-Traumatic Amnesia

· Neurological Signs · Skull Fracture · Seizure · Mechanism Of Injury · Age · Drug Or Alcohol Intoxication · Headache · Vomiting · Irritabiliy And Altered Behavior · History Of Cranial Neurosurgical Interventions § Assessments Of The Physical Functioning Of People With TBI Should Include Assessment For The Following: · Motor Deficits: O Muscle Weakness And Paralysis O Abnormal Muscle Tone (Spasticity) O Deficits In Joint Range Of Motion O Ataxia/Coordination · Sensory Deficits: O Visual/Hearing Loss7.

Medical And Physiotherapeutic Interventions To Treatment TBI For Patients Who Suffer Significant Neurologic And Functional Deficits Due To Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Inpatient Rehabilitation Centers Provide Comprehensive Post-Injury Care That Has Been Shown To Improve Functional Outcomes And Successful Reintegration Into The Community10. The Physical Therapist Uses Exercise And Task-Specific Training To Help The Patient Improve: 1. The Ability To Maintain Alertness And Follow Commands

2. Muscle And Joint Flexibility That May Be Reduced After Inactivity

3. The Ability To Move Around In Bed, To Sit Without Support, And To Stand Up

4. The Ability To Balance Safely When Sitting, Standing, Or Walking

5. The Ability To Move By Strengthening And The Practicing Of Functional Activities

6. Balance And Coordination

7. Strength And Energy, Reducing Any Feelings Of Fatigue That Occur From Inactivity Or The Injury To The Brain Itself 8. A Return To Sports And Fitness Activities9.

References 1: John Bruns And W. Allen Hauser (2003) 'The Epidemiology Of Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review', International League Against Epilepsy, (), Pp. [Online]. Available At: (Accessed:). 2: Mohammed Bangash And Ahmad T. Alshareef (2014) 'Pattern Of Traumatic Brain Injury At King Abdulaziz University Hospital', , (), Pp. [Online]. Available At: (Accessed:). 3: Adnan A. Hyder, Colleen A. Wunderlich, Prasanthi Puvanachandra, G. Gururaj And Olive C. Kobusingye (2007) 'The Impact Of Traumatic Brain Injuries: A Global Perspective', NeuroRehabilitation, (), Pp. [Online]. Available At: (Accessed:). 4: Jean A. Langlois,Wesley Rutland-Brown, And Marlena M. Wald (2006) 'The Epidemiology And Impact Of Traumatic Brain Injury A Brief Overview', Head Trauma Rehabil, (), Pp. [Online]. Available At: (Accessed: ). 5: Courtney J. Wright*, Heidi Zeeman, And Valda Biezaitis (2016) 'Holistic Practice In Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation: Perspectives Of Health Practitioners', PLoS ONE, (), Pp. [Online]. Available At: (Accessed: ). 6: Thomas Duncan,Javier Romero (2012) TRAUMA BOOK 2012, : Ventura County Medical Center Trauma Department. 7: (2006) Traumatic Brain Injury : Diagnosis , Acute Management And Rehabilitation,

New Zealand Guideline Groub.

8: Mayo Clinic Staff () Mayoclinic, Available At: Http://Www.Mayoclinic.Org/ (Accessed: May 15, 2014).

9: Move Forward Guide () American Physical Therapy Association, Available At: Http://Www.Mayoclinic.Org/ (Accessed: June 19, 2012). 10: Garcia P, Homeidan A, Kinne E, Rosado M, Curiel R (2015) 'Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy Following Acute Spinal Cord And Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries In An Inpatient Rehabilitation Hospital Setting', , (), Pp. [Online]. Available At: (Accessed: ).