To measure the quality of life of individuals and populations.
The WHOQOL-100 was developed alongside its shorter counterpart, the WHOQOL-BREF, by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and published in 1995. It was developed over several years and from 15 centres around the world. The questions stem from multiple statements about quality of life, health and well-being from people with and without disease, and health professionals. It has been tested for reliability and vailidity.
Specific populations or groups with a particular disease, or general populations.
Method of Use
The WHOQOL-100 is patient-reported questionnaire. It comprises 100 questions on the individual's perceptions of their health and well-being over the previous two weeks. Responses to questions are on a 1-5 Likert scale where 1 represents "disagree" or "not at all" and 5 represents "completely agree" or "extremely".
The questions cover six domains of quality of life plus general QOL and health:
- Overall Quality of Life and General Health
- Physical Health
- Energy and fatigue
- Pain and discomfort
- Sleep and rest
- Bodily image and appearance
- Negative feelings
- Positive feelings
- Thinking, learning, memory and concentration
4. Level of Independence
- Activities of daily living
- Dependence on medicinal substances and medical aids
- Work capacity
5. Social Relations
- Personal relationships
- Social support
- Sexual activity
- Financial resources
- Freedom, physical safety and security
- Health and social care: accessibility and quality
- Home environment
- Opportunities for acquiring new information and skills
- Participation in and opportunities for recreation/leisure
- Physical environment (pollution/noise/traffic/climate)
7. Spirituality/Religion/Personal beliefs
- Religion/Spirituality/Personal beliefs (single facet)
In its extensive development, the WHOQOL group has rigorously tested the WHOQOL-100's psychometric properties. Multiple studies have also tested the WHOQOL-100's psychometric properties in various disease groups. Some examples follow.
The WHOQOL-100 demonstrated strong reliability when measuring QOL in people with depression (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96), schizophrenia (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94), people with breast cancer, and when comparing sick and well people.
In a study of people receiving treatment for moderate depression, the domains and facets of the WHOQOL-100 demonstrated high construct, divergent and convergent validity. The WHOQOL-100 has also demonstrated validity in comparing a general population of well and sick people, schizophrenia and chronic pain.
The WHOQOL-100 is available in more than 20 languages. It shows good discriminatory power in people with depression i.e. those with worse depression record lower scores.
- World Health Organisation. WHOQOL: Measuring Quality of Life. Available from https://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/whoqol-qualityoflife/en/index1.html. Accessed 2 April 2020.
- Power M, Bullinger M, Harper A, & The World Health Organization Quality of Life Group. The World Health Organization WHOQOL-100: Tests of the universality of quality of life in 15 different cultural groups worldwide. Health Psychol. 1999. 18; 5: 495–505.
- Skevington SM, Wright A. Changes in the quality of life of patients receiving antidepressant medication in primary care: validation of the WHOQOL-100. Br J Psychiatry. 2001;178: 261-267. Accessed 16 April 2020.
- Orsel S, Akdemir A, Dag I. The sensitivity of quality-of-life scale WHOQOL-100 to psychopathological measures in schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2004. 45; 1: 57-61.
- Den Oudsten BL, Van Heck GL, Van der Steeg AFW, Roukemaad JA, De Vriesa J. The WHOQOL-100 has good psychometric properties in breast cancer patients. J Clin Epidemiol. 2009. 62; 2: 195-205.
- Skevington SM. Measuring quality of life in Britain: Introducing the WHOQOL-100. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1999. 47; 5: 449-459.
- Skevington SM, Carse MS, Williams AC. Validation of the WHOQOL-100: pain management improves quality of life for chronic pain patients. Clin J Pain. 2001. 17; 3: 264-75.
- O'Carroll R, Smith K, Couston M, Cossar JA, Hayes PC. A comparison of the WHOQOL-100 and the WHOQOL-BREF in detecting change in quality of life following liver transplantation. 2000. Qual Life Res; 9: 121–124.