Facial Disability Index

Original Editor - Arnold Fredrick D'Souza Top Contributors -

Introduction[edit | edit source]

It was developed by Dr. Jessie VanSwearingen with Dr. Jennifer Brach in order to evaluate the disability resulting from disorders of the facial nerve.[1]

Method of Use[edit | edit source]

It is a patient-rated outcome measure. There are 10 items from which items 1 - 5 constitute the Physical Function subscale, while items 6 - 10 constitute the Social/Well-being Function subscale. Each item in the Physical Function subscale is rated from 5 to 0 while items in the Social/Well-being Function subscale are rated from 6 to 1. The individual subscales are scored out of a total of 100 where the highest score is the best result.[1]

The FDI worksheet can be found here along with the formula for score calculation.

It has been translated to Italian[2], Spanish[3], Brazilian Portuguese[4], Turkish[5], French[6], Dutch[7], and German[8].

Evidence[edit | edit source]

It has been validated and is reliable for use in clinical studies with the theta reliability coefficients for Physical Function = .88 and Social/Well-being function = .83. Additionally, compared to SF-36, the FDI was able to satisfactorily correlate impairments, disability, and psychosocial status.[1]

A prospective follow-up study comparing patient-reported facial and psychosocial function (FaCE scale and FDI outcome measures) with physician-graded facial function (Sunnybrook and House-Brackmann grading) in early and follow-up stages in Bell’s palsy patients showed low to fair correlation between FaCE/FDI and Sunnybrook score in early stages, suggesting a quality of life (QOL) designs are less suited for the acute stage, and higher correlations at follow-ups suggest using of questionnaires for QoL evaluation with time[9].

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 VanSwearingen JM, Brach JS. The Facial Disability Index: reliability and validity of a disability assessment instrument for disorders of the facial neuromuscular system. Phys Ther. 1996 Dec;76(12):1288-98; discussion 1298-300. doi: 10.1093/ptj/76.12.1288.
  2. Pavese C, Cecini M, Camerino N, De Silvestri A, Tinelli C, Bejor M, Dalla Toffola E. Functional and social limitations after facial palsy: expanded and independent validation of the Italian version of the facial disability index. Phys Ther. 2014 Sep;94(9):1327-36. doi: 10.2522/ptj.20130254.
  3. Gonzalez-Cardero E, Infante-Cossio P, Cayuela A, Acosta-Feria M, Gutierrez-Perez JL. Facial disability index (FDI): adaptation to Spanish, reliability and validity. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2012 Nov 1;17(6):e1006-12. doi: 10.4317/medoral.18054.
  4. Graciano AJ, Bonin MM, Mory MR, Tessitore A, Paschoal JR, Chone CT. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the facial disability index into Brazilian Portuguese. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2020 Sep-Oct;86(5):602-608. doi: 10.1016/j.bjorl.2019.04.003.
  5. Özden F, Karaman ÖN, Tuğay N, Savaş Ö, Sözen T, Üçüncü H. The reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Facial Disability Index. Disabil Rehabil. 2020 May 15:1-10. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2020.1762768.
  6. Barry P, Mancini J, Alshukry A, Salburgo F, Lavieille JP, Montava M. Validation of French versions of the Facial Disability Index and the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale, specific quality of life scales for peripheral facial palsy patients. Clin Otolaryngol. 2019 May;44(3):313-322. doi: 10.1111/coa.13294.
  7. van Veen MM, Bruins TE, Artan M, Mooibroek-Leeuwerke T, Beurskens CHG, Werker PMN, Dijkstra PU. Health-related quality of life in facial palsy: translation and validation of the Dutch version Facial Disability Index. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2020 Jul 31;18(1):256. doi: 10.1186/s12955-020-01502-0.
  8. Volk GF, Steigerwald F, Vitek P, Finkensieper M, Kreysa H, Guntinas-Lichius O. Facial Disability Index und Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Skala: Validierung der Deutschen Versionen [Facial Disability Index and Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale: validation of the German versions]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2015 Mar;94(3):163-8. German. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1381999.
  9. Bylund N, Hultcrantz M, Jonsson L, Marsk E. Quality of Life in Bell's Palsy: Correlation with Sunnybrook and House‐Brackmann Over Time. The Laryngoscope. 2021 Feb;131(2):E612-8.