Effect of Alcohol,Smoking and Water on Muscle Regeneration

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Introduction:

The recovery from any injury the regeneration process and the speed of recovery can be greatly affected by the personal habits of the patients.For example; having a good amount of water can speed up the recovery while drinking alcohol and smoking habits can delay the process,

Effect of Alcohol:

  1. Muscle and Protein Synthesis: Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis (MPS) is directly related to the recovery and growth of the skeletal muscles. During the recovery period following a workout MPS is significantly elevated,but Alcohol consumption interferes with MPS which impairs muscle recovery and regeneration.
  2. Immune System: The Immune system consist of a vast numbers of cells, tissues and messengers that play a key role in protecting the body against infection and healing the body after injury. A strong immune system not only boost performance during the session but also help avoid infection which may alter the goal. Research has shown the immune system is highly integrated with our neurological and endocrine system, all of which must be in balance during recovery phase to optimise muscle growth.Not only can excessive alcohol consumption lead to immune deficiency and increase susceptibility to certain diseases, it can also place added stress on the liver.
  3. Energy: Alcohol can cause an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. An increased heart rate during aerobic activities combined with additional stress from the alcohol can make exercise feel harder than it should, resulting in a less effective training session and much less motivated patient.
  4. Dehydration; Dehydration has a number of negative effects on the body, from inducing feeling of fatigue to causing low physical performance, to increasing hunger and disrupting the muscle cells to produce ATP. When dehydrated, people are great risk of sustaing musculoskeletal injuries, such as cramps, muscle pull and strain.
  5. Endocrine System; Alcohol has been shown to increase the stress hormone Cortisol,which can reduce the level of growth hormone by as much as 72%, Growth hormone is predominantly secreted during the early sleeping hours of the night,because alcohol tend to disrupt natural sleep rhythms, it can decrease the amount of growth hormone released by as much as 70%.

Effect Of Smoking:

  1. Effect on the Blood and Arteries: The Nicotine and Carbon monoxide from smoking may make your blood "sticky" and your arteries may become narrow. Narrow arteries reduce the flow of blood to your heart, muscles, and other body organs, making exercise harder. During exercise blood flow helps boost oxygen supply to your muscles.Carbon monoxide also bond with haemoglobin molecules so the oxygen carrying capacity of blood reduces,Tar from cigarettes also accumulates in the airways and limits the amount of the air intake, presence of tar also hinder lung's natural cleansing mechanism. As the lung capacity and oxygen supply decrease, the muscles begin to starve for the oxygen which they need to grow,all this will result in low endurance.
  2. Effect on Heart Beat: A smoker's heart beats an average of 30% faster than that of a nonsmoker, which affect the outcome of your exercise in significant way, because your heart is working harder to achieve adequate circulation,you use more energy during the workout.This increase in heart rate , and the resultant increase in the blood pressure, diminishes blood flow and reduces the overall performance.When the exercise routine is designed to encourage muscle building, the diminished performance will yield less muscle mass.
  3. Lower Oxygen Level: Smoking reduces the amount of oxygen available to the muscle in two distinct way: First, by reducing the rate of blood flow to the muscle, limits their exposure to the oxygen in the blood. Second, because smokers produce more Phlegm, respiration hindered.

Effect Of Water Intake:

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