Gemellus Superior

Original Editor - Abbey Wright Top Contributors - Abbey Wright

Original Editor -

Top Contributors - Abbey Wright

Description

Gemellus superior is a small muscle in the posterio-latereal portion of the hip. It works with gemellus inferior and obturator internus, to form the triceps coxae, to externally rotate the hip[1]. These three muscles also act as the deep stabilisers of the hip.[2]
Gemellus superior.png

Origin

Gemellus superior originates from the outer (gluteal) surface of the spine of the ischium[3]

Insertion

It has a blended insertion with the upper part of the tendon of the Obturator internus.[3]

Nerve

Nerve to obturator internus, which is formed from portions of the L5, S1, and S2 spinal nerves.

Artery

Inferior gluteal and internal pudendal arteries

Function

The gemelli muscles act to externally (laterally) rotate the hip.

[4]

Clinical relevance

Together with its twin: gemellus inferior as well as obturator internus and piriformis, gemellus superior is a deep stabiliser of the hip joint. These four muscles work with gluteus maximus to resist anterior forces of the hip. [5]

It is difficult to assess gemellus superior in isolation due to its proximity to the other external rotators of the hip. Testing of the external rotators would be done in a normal hip assessment.

Resources

  1. Palastanga, NIgel; Soames, Roger (November 2011). Physiotherapy Essentials : Anatomy and Human Movement : Structure and Function (6th ed.). London, GBR: Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 235
  2. Brukner, Peter. (2011). Brukner & Kahn's Clinical Sports Medicine (4th Edition). Australia. McGraw-Hill education Pty Ltd. p514-515
  3. 3.0 3.1 Palastanga, NIgel; Soames, Roger (November 2011). Physiotherapy Essentials : Anatomy and Human Movement : Structure and Function (6th ed.). London, GBR: Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 237.
  4. Kenhub - Learn human anatomy. Functions of the gemelli muscles (preview) - 3D Human Anatomy | Kenhub. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SWuoa-XJPXg [last accessed 25/07/2019]
  5. Brukner, Peter. (2011). Brukner & Kahn's Clinical Sports Medicine (4th Edition). Australia. McGraw-Hill education Pty Ltd. p516