Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Measure (IKHOAM)

Original Editor - Adesola Odole

Top Contributors - Evan Thomas, Venugopal Pawar and Adesola Odole

Conceptual Basis

Outcome measures often reflect the environment and culture of the people they were originally developed for.  Some of the existing osteoarthritis (OA) outcome measures include few items that may not be readily understood by Nigerian especially those with low educational attainments. Almost all existing OA outcome measures exclude activities that are important to many patients seen in Nigerian clinics. The need to develop an appropriate outcome measure for knee and hip OA for the Nigerian environment was identified [1].

Objective

To assess end results of care in patients with knee and/or hip OA.

Intended Population

Patients with knee and/or hip OA.

Description

The Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Measure (IKHOAM) is a 3-domain/part, 33- item instrument.

The domains are:
  1. Activity limitations domain (part 1) - comprises 25 items/activities of daily living that are being performed by individuals with knee/hip osteoarthritis. The degree of difficulty and assistance required in carrying out the activities are rated on a 5 point (0-4) ordinal scale.
  2. Participation restrictions domain (part 2) – comprises 3 items/activities in societal participation due to knee/hip osteoarthritis. The restrictions experienced in carrying out the activities are rated on a 4 point (0-3) ordinal scale.
  3. Physical performance tests domain (part 3) – includes 5 tests that are rated by the clinician. These tests are:
    • 250m walk test rated on a 6 point (0-5) ordinal scale.
    • One leg stance test rated on a 6 point (0-5) ordinal scale.
    • Stairs climbing test rated on a 5 point (0-4) ordinal scale.
    • Squat test rated on a 5 point (0-4) ordinal scale.
    • Balance test rated on a 6 point (0-5) ordinal scale.

Parts 1 and 2 are patient reported, which may be completed by the patient (self) or through an interview.

Scoring:

Part one: Maximum obtainable score of 200. Degree of difficulty and nature of assistance required for each of 25 items were scored between 0 and 4 each.

Part two: Extent of participation in performing the three items was scored between 0 and 3 giving a maximum obtainable score of 9.

Part three: Maximum obtainable score of 23 (5 for 250m walk test, 5 for one leg stance test, 4 for stairs climbing test, 4 for squat test, 5 for balance test).

The maximum obtainable score on IKHOAM is 232 (200+9+23). The score for a subject was calculated in percentage as Subject’s score/Total possible score x 100

Low score on IKHOAM implies low level of physical functioning ability and high level means high level of physical functioning ability.

Duration for Completion

About 15 minutes.

Scoring

  1. Part 1 rates 25 disability attributes on a 5-point ordinal scale for degree of difficulty experienced and nature of assistance required (maximum obtainable score of 200)
  2. Part 2 rates 3 attributes of participation restrictions on a 4-point ordinal scale(maximum obtainable score of 9)
  3. Part 3 rates 5 items (maximum obtainable score of 23) maximum obtainable score on IKHOAM is 232( 200+9+23)

Score for a subject can be calculated as subject’s score x 100

Validity

Akinpelu AO, Odole AC, Adegoke BOA, Adeniyi AF (2007) Development and Initial Validation of Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Measure (IKHOAM). South African Journal of Physiotherapy  Vol. 63:3-8

Reliability

Akinpelu AO, Akinwola MO, Odole AC, Gbiri CA (2011) The Reliability of the English version of Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Measure (IKHOAM). Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics Early online: 1-8 DOI: 10.3109/02/02703181.2011.589566

Responsiveness

Akinpelu AO, Odole AC, Adegoke BOA, Adeniyi AF (2007) Development and Initial Validation of Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Measure (IKHOAM). South African Journal of Physiotherapy  Vol. 63:3-8

Utility

Available in the three main Nigerian languages with evidence of psychometric properties[1][2][3][4][5]

References

  1. Odole AC, Akinpelu AO, Bamgboye EA (2006): Validity and Internal Consistency of a Yoruba version of the Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Measure (Yoruba IKHOAM). African Journal of Medicine and Medical Science. Vol. 35: 349-357.
  2. Akinpelu AO, Odole AC, Adegoke BOA, Adeniyi AF (2007) Development and Initial Validation of Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Measure (IKHOAM). South African Journal of Physiotherapy Vol. 63:3-8
  3. Odole AC, Akinpelu AO (2008): Validity and internal consistency of a Hausa version of the Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Measure. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes Vol.6: 86
  4. Odole AC, Akinpelu AO (2010): Translation of the Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Measure into Igbo language. African Journal of Biomedical Research 13, 169-175
  5. Akinpelu AO, Akinwola MO, Odole AC, Gbiri CA (2011) The Reliability of the English version of Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Measure (IKHOAM). Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics Early online: 1-8 DOI: 10.3109/02/02703181.2011.589566