Kim test

Original Editor - Sarah McBride

Top Contributors - Sarah McBride, Kim Jackson, Dan Rhon, Clinically Relevant and Kai A. Sigel


Detection of a posteroinferior labral lesion.


A - With the patient in a sitting position with the arm 90 degrees of abduction, the examiner holds the elbow and lateral aspect of the proximal arm, and a strong axial loading force is applied.

B - while the arm is  elevated 45 degrees diagonally upward, downward and backward force is applied to the proximal arm. A sudden onset of posterior shoulder pain indicates a positive test result, regardless of accompanying posterior clunk of the humeral head.

Kim test.jpg


The sensitivity of the Kim test was 80%, specificity was 94%. The interexaminer reliability between 2 examiners was 0.91[2].

The accuracy of the jerk test in detecting a posteroinferior labral lesion was the following: sensitivity, 73%; specificity, 98%[2].

The Kim test was more sensitive in detecting a predominantly inferior labral lesion, whereas the jerk test was more sensitive in detecting a predominantly posterior labral lesion. The sensitivity in detecting a posteroinferior labral lesion increased to 97% when the 2 tests were combined[2].


  1. Clinically Relevant Technologies,; Accessed May 2011
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1. SH Kim et al. A Novel Test for Posteroinferior Labral Lesion of the Shoulder—A Comparison to the Jerk Test Am J Sports Med - 01-AUG-2005; 33(8): 1188-92