Manual Muscle Testing: Elbow Flexion
Grades 2 to 5 testing - patient is seated
Grades 0 to 1 testing - patient is supine for 'gravity minimal' position
Hand positioning depends on specific muscle:
Therapist at test side
Ensure wrist flexors are not contracting
Palpation over intended test muscle
- Patient is to flex the elbow
- Grades 4 and 5 with resistance over flexor surface at the distal forearm with force in the direction opposite to flexion.
- To satisfy grade 5 'normal muscle' performance criteria, the patient must have the ability to move through complete range of motion (active resistance testing) OR maintain an end point range (break testing) against maximum resistance.
- Hislop H, Avers D, Brown M. Daniels and Worthingham's muscle Testing-E-Book: Techniques of manual examination and performance testing. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013 Sep 27.