Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia

Original Editor - Khloud Shreif

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Objective[edit | edit source]

The original Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobiais (TSK) was first developed in 1991 by R. Miller, S. Kopri, and D. Todd. TSK is 17 items a self-reporting questionnaire based on evaluation of fear of movement, fear of physical activity, and fear avoidance. It was first developed to distinguish between non-excessive fear and phobia in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, specifically the fear of movement in patients with chronic low back pain then widely used for different parts of the body. The questionnaire using 4 points to assess that are based on; the model of fear-avoidance, fear of work-related activities, fear of movement, and fear of re-injury[1]. There is another valid, and reliable abbreviated version of the scale that consists of 11 items [2].

It consists of two subscales,

Activity avoidance (AA): reflection of activity that may result in an increase in pain or cause injury.

Somatic focus (SF): reflection of beliefs and underlying serious conditions.

Intended Population[edit | edit source]

Tampa scale used in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain such as low back pain, neck pain, fibromyalgia. TSK-AA was also valid to use after spinal fusion in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis[3].

Method of Use[edit | edit source]

TSK composed of 17 items, scoring range from 1: 4 as follows for items from 1, 2, 3-7, 9-11, 13-15, and 17:

(1) Strongly disagree

(2) Disagree

(3) Agree

(4) Strongly agree.

For items 4, 8, 12, and 16 it is vice versa:

(1) Strongly disagree.

(2) Disagree

(3) Agree

(4) Strongly agree.

The total score of the scale range from 17- 68, where 17 means no kinesiophobia, 68 means severe kinesiophobia, and score ± 37 indicates there is kinesiophobia.

The shortened version TSK-11 maintains items 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 15, and 17 from the original scale, and its score range from 11-44.

Evidence[edit | edit source]

Reliability[edit | edit source]

Internal consistency, TSK shows a high level of internal consistency across all items and is positively associated with related measures of fear-avoidance, pain catastrophizing, pain-related disability[4].

In the Finnish version of TSK, the test-retest reliability (ICC) = 0.887[5].

Validity[edit | edit source]

Construct validity: moderate correlation coefficient with measures of pain-related fear, pain catastrophising, and disability in patients with CLBP.

Predictive validity: moderate correlation coefficient with physical performance tests[6].

Concurrent validity is moderate, ranging from r(s) =0.33 to 0.59[7].

Responsiveness[edit | edit source]

For patients with chronic low back pain, TSK was sensitive to detect clinical changes[8], it was also sensitive to detect changes after spinal fusion[9]. Unlike in patients with ACL injury, it isn't the best way to assess psychological factors according to the Japanese version[10].

Links[edit | edit source]

Tampa scale of kinesiophobia (TSK).

MDApp, TSK.

NovoPsych, TSK.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Hudes K. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia and neck pain, disability and range of motion: a narrative review of the literature. The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association. 2011 Sep;55(3):222.
  2. Tkachuk GA, Harris CA. Psychometric properties of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia-11 (TSK-11). The Journal of Pain. 2012 Oct 1;13(10):970-7.
  3. Ye DL, Plante I, Roy M, Ouellet JA, Ferland CE. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia: Structural Validation among Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis Undergoing Spinal Fusion Surgery. Physical & Occupational Therapy In Pediatrics. 2020 Feb 6:1-1.
  4. French DJ, France CR, Vigneau F, French JA, Evans RT. Fear of movement/(re) injury in chronic pain: a psychometric assessment of the original English version of the Tampa scale for kinesiophobia (TSK). Pain. 2007 Jan 1;127(1-2):42-51.
  5. Koho P, Aho S, Pohjolainen T, Hurri H. Reliability of Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia Questionnaire and Comparability of Paper and Computer Versions in Chronic Pain Patients. InOrthopaedic Proceedings 2009 May (Vol. 91, No. SUPP_II, pp. 286-286). The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
  6. Roelofs J, Goubert L, Peters ML, Vlaeyen JW, Crombez G. The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia: further examination of psychometric properties in patients with chronic low back pain and fibromyalgia. European Journal of Pain. 2004 Oct 1;8(5):495-502.
  7. Swinkels-Meewisse EJ, Swinkels RA, Verbeek AL, Vlaeyen JW, Oostendorp RA. Psychometric properties of the Tampa Scale for kinesiophobia and the fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire in acute low back pain. Manual therapy. 2003 Feb 1;8(1):29-36.
  8. Monticone M, Ambrosini E, Rocca B, Foti C, Ferrante S. Responsiveness of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia in Italian subjects with chronic low back pain undergoing motor and cognitive rehabilitation. European Spine Journal. 2016 Sep 1;25(9):2882-8.
  9. Monticone M, Ambrosini E, Rocca B, Foti C, Ferrante S. Responsiveness and minimal clinically important changes for the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia after lumbar fusion during cognitive behavioral rehabilitation. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 2017 Jun;53(3):351-8.
  10. Huang H, Nagao M, Arita H, Shiozawa J, Nishio H, Kobayashi Y, Kaneko H, Nagayama M, Saita Y, Ishijima M, Takazawa Y. Reproducibility, responsiveness and validation of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia in patients with ACL injuries. Health and quality of life outcomes. 2019 Dec 1;17(1):150.