Falls Efficacy Scale - International (FES-I)
The Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) is a measure of “fear of falling” or “concerns about falling”, developed as a part of the Prevention of Falls Network Europe (ProFaNE) project from 2003 to 2006 by Todd et al. It is a 16 item questionnaire, useful to the researchers and clinicians interested in fear of falling, with a score ranging from minimum 16 (no concern about falling) to maximum 64 (severe concern about falling).
The FES-I is intended to be used in adult population to measure the level of concern about falling during social and physical activities inside and outside the home whether or not the person actually does the activity.
Method of Use
no special training required
Mode and Cost of Instrument
It can be administered as self-completion questionnaires, or interview based questionnaire.
It is available free of cost at https://sites.manchester.ac.uk/fes-i/ .
It is a 16-item questionnaire where individuals are instructed to score their concern of falling during an activity on a 4 point Likert scale with 1 as not concerned at all and 4 as very concerned. The item scores are summed up to obtain a total, with higher the score, higher being the concern for falling.
The items included are:
- Cleaning the house (e.g. sweep, vacuum, dust)
- Getting dressed or undressed
- Preparing simple meals
- Taking a bath or shower
- Going to the shop
- Getting in or out of a chair
- Going up or down stairs
- Walking around in the neighborhood
- Reaching for something above your head or on the ground
- Going to answer the telephone before it stops ringing
- Walking on a slippery surface (e.g. wet or icy)
- Visiting a friend or relative
- Walking in a place with crowds
- Walking on an uneven surface (e.g. rocky ground, poorly maintained pavement)
- Walking up or down a slope
- Going out to a social event (e.g. religious service, family gathering, or club meeting)
Reliability and validity
- In Parkinson's Disease: Internal consistency (α = 0.96, On phase; 0.98, Off phase) and test-retest reliability (0.94; 0.91) were satisfactory in on phase of drug an off phase. There was a a moderate/high correlation (rS = |0.50–0.70|) between FES-I and Visual Analog Scale-Fear of Falling, Berg Balance Scale, and Functional Reach Test.
- In Vestibular disorders: excellent test-retest reliability (ICC=0.94). Excellent validity.
- In Older Adults: Excellent test retest reliability , and validity in both community dwelling and geriatric nursing home dwelling individuals.
- In Multiple sclerosis: Excellent internal consistency (α = 0.96) with adequate criterion validity.
- In Joint Pains and fractures: Excellent internal consistency (α = 0.94).
Find additional information here: http://profound.eu.com/
- L. Yardley, N. Beyer, K. Hauer, G. Kempen, C. Piot-Ziegler, and C. Todd, “Development and initial validation of the falls efficacy scale-international (FES-I),” Age and Ageing, 2005. vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 614–619.
- Dewan N, MacDermid J. "Fall Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I)." Journal of Physiotherapy, 2014. vol. 60, no. 1, p. 60.
- Mehdizadeh M, Martinez-Martin P, Habibi S, Fereshtehnejad S, Abasi A, Khatoon J, et al. "Reliability and Validity of Fall Efficacy Scale-International in People with Parkinson’s Disease during On- and Off-Drug Phases", Parkinson's Disease, 2019, Article ID 6505232, 7 pages.
- Morgan MT, Friscia LA, Whitney SL, Furman JM, Sparto PJ. Reliability and validity of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) in individuals with dizziness and imbalance. Otol Neurotol. 2013 Aug;34(6):1104-8
- van Vliet R, Hoang P, Lord S, Gandevia S, Delbaere K. Falls efficacy scale-international: a cross-sectional validation in people with multiple sclerosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 May;94(5):883-9.
- Visschedijk JH, Terwee CB, Caljouw MA, Spruit-van Eijk M, van Balen R, Achterberg WP. Reliability and validity of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International after hip fracture in patients aged ≥ 65 years. Disabil Rehabil. 2015;37(23):2225-32.