Five Times Sit to Stand Test
The five Times Sit to Stand Test (5x Sit-To-Stand Test) commonly abbreviated as 5XSST is used to assesses functional lower extremity strength, transitional movements, balance, and fall risk in older adults.
5XSST is designed for adults from 18 to 64 years of age and older adults of 65+. This paper will address this test usage among the older adults. In older adults this test is commonly used to assess lower extremity strength, balance and fall risks in person with dementia, stroke, vestibular disorder and balance disorders etc.
Method of Use
The 5XSST scoring is based on the amount of time (to the nearest decimal in seconds) a patient is able to transfer from a seated to a standing position and back to sitting five times. The equipment need in performing 5XSST test includes: Stopwatch and standard height chair with straight back (43-45 cm, 17-18 inches high). Then the instruction is given by asking the test taker to sit on the chair by resting their back. Also, the test taker is instructed to fold their arms across their chest. Then the test taker should be instructed to do sit-to-stand five times, as quickly as possible, at the count of go and without their back or leg resting on the chair between the interval of repetition.
The lower the time to complete the test the better the outcome of the test. The Minimal Detectable Change(MDC) time for the test is within 3.6 to 4.2 second  and Minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is 2.3 seconds. Also, the age matched norms score are 11.4 seconds for 60-69 years age groups and 12.6 seconds and 14.8 seconds for 70-79 and 80-89 years of age group ,respectively.
The 5XSST test has excellent intra-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) range: 0.914–0.933) and excellent test-retest reliability (ICC range: 0.988–0.995) in healthy older adults.
The 5XSST is a valid measure of dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults, when its performance was compared with Time Up and Go test (The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between 5XSST and TUG (r=0.64, p<0.001))
The 5XSST has a moderate responsivenes to change over time and was moderately related to measures of gait and dynamic balance in vestibular and balance disorders participants ( Responsiveness-treatment coefficient (RT) was 0.58 ).
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