Nijmegen Questionnaire

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Objective

The Nijmegen Questionnaire (NQ) gives a broad view of symptoms associated with dysfunctional breathing patterns. The Nijmegen Questionnaire was introduced over 30 years ago as a screening tool to detect patients with hyperventilation complaints that could benefit from breathing regulation through capnographic feedback

Intended Population

Mostly used for people with hyperventilation syndrome. 

Method of Use

The NQ consosts of 16 items to be answered on a five point scale ranging from 'never' counted as zero to 'very often' counted as 4. The total score ranges from 0-64. Completion of the questionnaire only takes a few minutes.

A score of over 19 denotes the presence of respiratory distress and dysfunction.  The higher the score the more distress is present.  Values below 20 are considered within normal and functional domain.[1]

Never

0

RARELY

1

SOMETIMES

2

OFTEN

3

VERY OFTEN

4

CHEST PAIN
FEELING TENSE
BLURRED VISION
DIZZY SPELLS
FEELING CONFUSED

FASTER OR DEEPER

BREATHING

SHORT OF BREATH

TIGHT FEELING 

IN THE CHEST

BLOATED FEELING IN STOMACH

TINGLING FINGERS
UNABLE TO BREATH DEEPLY
STIFF FINGERS OR ARMS
TIGHT FEELINGS ROUND MOUTH
COLD HANDS OR FEET
PALPITATIONS
FEELING OF ANXIETY

[2]

Reference

van Dixhoorn J, Duivenvoorden HJ. Efficacy of Nijmegen Questionnaire in recognition of the hyperventilation syndrome. J Psychosom Res. 1985;29(2):199-206

Evidence

162 Greek asthma out-patients (86 with mild and 76 moderate asthma) participated in the study. Hyperventilation was assessed using NQ and clinical measures such as breath holding time (BHT), respiratory rate (RR) and end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2). Construct validity was tested through factor analysis and cross-sectional validity through correlations of the NQ score with BHT, ETCO2 and RR (Pearson’s r correlation coefficient).

Reliability

Validity

The sensitivity of the Nijmegen Questionnaire in relation to the clinical diagnosis was 91% and the specificity 95%[3]

Responsiveness

Advantages of the NQ is that it is short and responsive to treatment[1]  Thus it can be used repeatedly over a course of treatment to measure progress.

The NQ was valid and reliable in the present sample with asthma.


Links

Interactive online questionnaire

The Nijmegen Questionnaire

Recent Related Research (from Pubmed)

[4] [5]

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 Courtney, R. and Dixhoorn, J. Questionnaites and manual methods for assessing breathing dysfunction. Chapter 6.5 in: Chaitow, L., Bradley, D., and Gilbert, C. Recognizing and treating breathing disorders. 20014, Elsevier
  2. http://www.heartofengland.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/Nijmegen_Questionnaire.pdf
  3. van Dixhoorn J, Duivenvoorden HJ. Efficacy of Nijmegen Questionnaire in recognition of the hyperventilation syndrome. J Psychosom Res. 1985;29(2):199-206.
  4. The Nijmegen Questionnaire and dysfunctional breathing Jan van Dixhoorn, Hans Folgering ERJ Open Research May 2015, 1 (1) 00001-2015; DOI: 10.1183/23120541.00001-2015
  5. Validity and reliability evidence of the nijmegen questionnaire in astma Eirini Grammatopoulou, Emmanouil Scordilis, Afrodite Evangelodimou, Aikaterini Haniotou, Arietta Spinou, Nikolaos Tsamis, Konstantinos Grigoriadis, Dafni Antoniadou, Maria Xyki, Vlassia Belibassaki European Respiratory Journal Sep 2013, 42 (Suppl 57) P1307;