Hippotherapy

Original Editor - Asma Alshehri

Top Contributors - Asma Alshehri and George Prudden;

Definition 

Hippotherapy literally means" treatment with help of the horse". It's a treatment strategy that utilizes equine movement in a therapeutic way for patients with movement dysfunction.[1]

Practitioners

A specially trained

  • PTs and PTA
  • OTs and OTA
  • SLPs and SLPA 

Differentiation between hippotherapy and therapeutic riding

Hippotherapy  therapeutic riding 
Using the movement of the horse as a treatment tool  Adapted recreational horseback riding lessons 
Completed by a professional therapist in conjunction with professional horse handler and a specially screened and trained therapy horse  completed by a professional horseback riding instructor in conjunction with volunteers            
There is direct hands on participation by the therapist at all time  the individual is often taught riding lessons in a group format 
The horse's movement is essential to assist in meeting therapy goals  there is occasional hands on assistance by the riding instructor or volunteers 
Is a one on one treatment and generally occurs year-round until the patient meets discharge criteria  here, the emphasis is on proper riding position and rein skills, not functional therapeutic goals 

[1]

How does it work?[2]

Horse's pelvis has a multidimensional movement  (variable, rhythmic and repetitive) Wich is similar to the pelvis of human beings. Also, sitting astride a horse would involve about every muscle group in the body. however, about the environment of hippotherapy, it could activate all kinds of sensory integration such as tactile, vestibular, visua,l olfactory and propreceptive stimulation.

Also, another study has approved that each minute astride a horse stimulate a child's brain with up to 1000 nerve impulses. And it has been clinically proven that just being in the vicinity of horses causes changes in the brainwaves patterns.


So,without even realizing it, this environment presents patients with a range of stimuli for the brain to process.

Advantages 

it causes:

improvement in:

muscle tone and strength  , Gross motor skills  , ROM , coordination  , endurance

Advances in:

Balance ,  head and trunk control ,  Body awareness ,  posture  , mobility

positive effects on:

Eye-hand coordination,  limbic system function related to arousal, motivation and attention, sensorimotor function,   oral motor, voice quality and vocal ccocommunication. [1] 

Recent Related Research (from <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/">Pubmed</a>)

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   <title>Application of a tri-axial accelerometry-based portable motion recorder for the quantitative assessment of hippotherapy in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.</title>         
   <link>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27821971?dopt=Abstract</link>    
   <description>

<![CDATA[<table border="0" width="100%"><tr><td align="left"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/27821971/%22><img src="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/query/egifs/https:--www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov-corehtml-pmc-pmcgifs-pubmed-pmc.gif" border="0"/></a> </td><td align="right"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=27821971%22>Related Articles</a></td></tr></table>

       <p><b>Application of a tri-axial accelerometry-based portable motion recorder for the quantitative assessment of hippotherapy in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.</b></p>          
       <p>J Phys Ther Sci. 2016 Oct;28(10):2970-2974</p>
       <p>Authors:  Mutoh T, Mutoh T, Takada M, Doumura M, Ihara M, Taki Y, Tsubone H, Ihara M</p>
       <p>Abstract<br/>
       [Purpose] This case series aims to evaluate the effects of hippotherapy on gait and balance ability of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy using quantitative parameters for physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] Three patients with gait disability as a sequela of cerebral palsy (one female and two males; age 5, 12, and 25 years old) were recruited. Participants received hippotherapy for 30 min once a week for 2 years. Gait parameters (step rate, step length, gait speed, mean acceleration, and horizontal/vertical displacement ratio) were measured using a portable motion recorder equipped with a tri-axial accelerometer attached to the waist before and after a 10-m walking test. [Results] There was a significant increase in step length between before and after a single hippotherapy session. Over the course of 2 year intervention, there was a significant increase in step rate, gait speed, step length, and mean acceleration and a significant improvement in horizontal/vertical displacement ratio. [Conclusion] The data suggest that quantitative parameters derived from a portable motion recorder can track both immediate and long-term changes in the walking ability of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy undergoing hippotherapy.<br/>
       </p><p>PMID: 27821971 [PubMed - in process]</p>
   ]]></description>
   <author> Mutoh T, Mutoh T, Takada M, Doumura M, Ihara M, Taki Y, Tsubone H, Ihara M</author>
   <category>J Phys Ther Sci</category>
   <guid isPermaLink="false">PubMed:27821971</guid>

</item> <item>

   <title>The Effects of Equine-assisted Activities and Therapy on Resting-state Brain Function in Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Pilot Study.</title>         
   <link>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27776388?dopt=Abstract</link>    
   <description>

<![CDATA[<table border="0" width="100%"><tr><td align="left"><a href="http://www.cpn.or.kr/journal/journal_view.html?year=2016&vol=14&num=4&page=357%22><img src="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/query/egifs/http:--www.cpn.or.kr-img-kcnp_km.gif" border="0"/></a> <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/27776388/%22><img src="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/query/egifs/https:--www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov-corehtml-pmc-pmcgifs-pubmed-pmc.gif" border="0"/></a> </td><td align="right"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=27776388%22>Related Articles</a></td></tr></table>

       <p><b>The Effects of Equine-assisted Activities and Therapy on Resting-state Brain Function in Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Pilot Study.</b></p>          
       <p>Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci. 2016 Nov 30;14(4):357-364</p>
       <p>Authors:  Yoo JH, Oh Y, Jang B, Song J, Kim J, Kim S, Lee J, Shin HY, Kwon JY, Kim YH, Jeong B, Joung YS</p>
       <p>Abstract<br/>
       Objective: Equine-assisted activities and therapy (EAA/T) have been used as adjunct treatment options for physical and psychosocial rehabilitation. However, the therapeutic effects on resting-state brain function have not yet been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of EAA/T on participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by comparing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) signals and their clinical correlates.<br/>
       Methods: Ten participants with ADHD participated in a 12-week EAA/T program without any medication. Two rs-fMRIs were acquired for all participants before and after EAA/T. For estimating therapeutic effect, the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method was applied to capture the changes in the regional synchronization of functional signals.<br/>
       Results: After the EAA/T program, clear symptom improvement was found even without medication. Surface-based pairwise comparisons revealed that ReHo in the right precuneus and right pars orbitalis clusters had significantly diminished after the program. Reduced ReHo in the right precuneus cluster was positively correlated with changes in the scores on DuPaul's ADHD Rating Scale-Korean version.<br/>
       Conclusion: Our results indicate that EAA/T is associated with short-range functional connectivity in the regions related to the default mode network and the behavioral inhibition system, which are associated with symptom improvement.<br/>
       </p><p>PMID: 27776388 [PubMed - in process]</p>
   ]]></description>
   <author> Yoo JH, Oh Y, Jang B, Song J, Kim J, Kim S, Lee J, Shin HY, Kwon JY, Kim YH, Jeong B, Joung YS</author>
   <category>Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci</category>
   <guid isPermaLink="false">PubMed:27776388</guid>

</item> <item>

   <title>Equine-Assisted Occupational Therapy: Increasing Engagement for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.</title>         
   <link>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27767943?dopt=Abstract</link>    
   <description>

<![CDATA[<table border="0" width="100%"><tr><td align="left"><a href="http://ajot.aota.org/article.aspx?doi=10.5014/ajot.2016.020701%22><img src="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/query/egifs/http:--ajot.aota.org-images-AJOT_fulltext.png" border="0"/></a> </td><td align="right"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=27767943%22>Related Articles</a></td></tr></table>

       <p><b>Equine-Assisted Occupational Therapy: Increasing Engagement for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.</b></p>          
       <p>Am J Occup Ther. 2016 Nov/Dec;70(6):7006220040p1-7006220040p9</p>
       <p>Authors:  Llambias C, Magill-Evans J, Smith V, Warren S</p>
       <p>Abstract<br/>
       Engagement in meaningful activities is essential to development and is often reduced in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have limited engagement in activities or relationships. A multiple-baseline design was used with 7 children with ASD ages 4-8 yr to assess the effect of including a horse in occupational therapy intervention on task engagement. The children showed improvements in engagement. Including horses in occupational therapy sessions may be a valuable addition to conventional treatments to increase task engagement of children with ASD. Factors related to the environment, therapeutic strategies, and individual participation need to be considered in understanding why this intervention may be effective and developing a theoretical basis for implementation.<br/>
       </p><p>PMID: 27767943 [PubMed - in process]</p>
   ]]></description>
   <author> Llambias C, Magill-Evans J, Smith V, Warren S</author>
   <category>Am J Occup Ther</category>
   <guid isPermaLink="false">PubMed:27767943</guid>

</item> <item>

   <title>More Than Just a Break from Treatment: How Substance Use Disorder Patients Experience the Stable Environment in Horse-Assisted Therapy.</title>         
   <link>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27746677?dopt=Abstract</link>    
   <description>

<![CDATA[<table border="0" width="100%"><tr><td align="left"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/27746677/%22><img src="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/query/egifs/https:--www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov-corehtml-pmc-pmcgifs-pubmed-pmc.gif" border="0"/></a> </td><td align="right"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=27746677%22>Related Articles</a></td></tr></table>

       <p><b>More Than Just a Break from Treatment: How Substance Use Disorder Patients Experience the Stable Environment in Horse-Assisted Therapy.</b></p>          
       <p>Subst Abuse. 2016;10:99-108</p>
       <p>Authors:  Kern-Godal A, Brenna IH, Arnevik EA, Ravndal E</p>
       <p>Abstract<br/>
       Inclusion of horse-assisted therapy (HAT) in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is rarely reported. Our previous studies show improved treatment retention and the importance of the patient-horse relationship. This qualitative study used thematic analysis, within a social constructionist framework, to explore how eight patients experienced contextual aspects of HAT's contribution to their SUD treatment. Participants described HAT as a "break from usual treatment". However, four interrelated aspects of this experience, namely "change of focus", "activity", "identity", and "motivation," suggest HAT is more than just a break from usual SUD treatment. The stable environment is portrayed as a context where participants could construct a positive self: one which is useful, responsible, and accepted; more fundamentally, a different self from the "patient/self" receiving treatment for a problem. The implications extend well beyond animal-assisted or other adjunct therapies. Their relevance to broader SUD policy and treatment practices warrants further study.<br/>
       </p><p>PMID: 27746677 [PubMed - in process]</p>
   ]]></description>
   <author> Kern-Godal A, Brenna IH, Arnevik EA, Ravndal E</author>
   <category>Subst Abuse</category>
   <guid isPermaLink="false">PubMed:27746677</guid>

</item> <item>

   <title>Experience of using hippotherapy in complex effects on muscle spirals in children with spastic forms of cerebral palsy.</title>         
   <link>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27717938?dopt=Abstract</link>    
   <description>

<![CDATA[<table border="0" width="100%"><tr><td align="left"/><td align="right"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=27717938%22>Related Articles</a></td></tr></table>

       <p><b>Experience of using hippotherapy in complex effects on muscle spirals in children with spastic forms of cerebral palsy.</b></p>          
       <p>Wiad Lek. 2016;69(3 pt 2):527-529</p>
       <p>Authors:  Strashko EY, Kapustianska АA, Bobyreva LE</p>
       <p>Abstract<br/>
       Matters of physical and medical rehabilitation of children with organic lesions of the nervous system, in particular, with cerebral palsy, are actual in countries around the world. Hippotherapy is neurophysiologically oriented therapy using horses. Determine whether a combination of hippotherapy as a method of rehabilitation in the aftermath of outpatient comprehensive impact on MS on a stationary phase; Study of the effect of hippotherapy as securing and preparation method for learning new postures and movements in children with spastic cerebral palsy forms; The study of the possible optimization of psychophysical state, activation motivations of patients; Determination of the optimal timing of hippotherapy sessions, the number of procedures, the study of possible fatigue factor children. HT classes were conducted at the Ippotsentra "Wind of Change" in the period 2010-2013 the main group of children surveyed (36 people) with spastic forms of cerebral palsy. HT procedure took place twice a day - morning and evening - 30 minutes during 10-12 days. Thus, the proposed integration of the HT program of complex effects on muscle spirals children with spastic cerebral palsy forms is physiologically and anthropologically based on 4-5 day training children adequately transferred the full amount of lessons learned new postures and movements, HT does not cause complications in the somatic and psycho-emotional state of the children, HT enables sensorimotor and psychomotor effects, save and normalize muscle tone for a longer period (up to three months), compared with traditional methods of physiotherapy. HT can serve as a method of learning a new "postures and movements", the preparation of the locomotor apparatus to learn walking.<br/>
       </p><p>PMID: 27717938 [PubMed - in process]</p>
   ]]></description>
   <author> Strashko EY, Kapustianska АA, Bobyreva LE</author>
   <category>Wiad Lek</category>
   <guid isPermaLink="false">PubMed:27717938</guid>

</item> <item>

   <title>The effects of hippotherapy on postural balance and functional ability in children with cerebral palsy.</title>         
   <link>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27630401?dopt=Abstract</link>    
   <description>

<![CDATA[<table border="0" width="100%"><tr><td align="left"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/27630401/%22><img src="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/query/egifs/https:--www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov-corehtml-pmc-pmcgifs-pubmed-pmc.gif" border="0"/></a> </td><td align="right"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=27630401%22>Related Articles</a></td></tr></table>

       <p><b>The effects of hippotherapy on postural balance and functional ability in children with cerebral palsy.</b></p>          
       <p>J Phys Ther Sci. 2016 Aug;28(8):2220-6</p>
       <p>Authors:  Moraes AG, Copetti F, Angelo VR, Chiavoloni LL, David AC</p>
       <p>Abstract<br/>
       UNLABELLED: [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of hippotherapy on seated postural balance, dynamic balance, and functional performance in children with cerebral palsy and compared the effects of 12 and 24 sessions on seated postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 15 children with cerebral palsy aged between 5 and 10 years.<br/>
       INTERVENTIONS: A hippotherapy protocol was performed for 30 minutes, twice a week, for 12 weeks. Postural balance in a sitting position was measured using an AMTI AccuSway Plus force platform 1 week before initiating the hippotherapy program and after 12 and 24 weeks. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) were used before and after 24 sessions. [Results] Significant differences were observed for center of pressure (COP) variables, including medio-lateral (COPml), anteroposterior displacement (COPap), and velocity of displacement (VelCOP), particularly after 24 sessions. There were also significant differences in BBS scores and PEDI score increases associated with functional skills (self-care, social function, and mobility), caregiver assistance (self-care), social function, and mobility. [Conclusion] Hippotherapy resulted in improvement in postural balance in the sitting position, dynamic balance, and functionality in children with cerebral palsy, an effect particularly significant after 24 hippotherapy sessions.<br/>
       </p><p>PMID: 27630401 [PubMed]</p>
   ]]></description>
   <author> Moraes AG, Copetti F, Angelo VR, Chiavoloni LL, David AC</author>
   <category>J Phys Ther Sci</category>
   <guid isPermaLink="false">PubMed:27630401</guid>

</item> <item>

   <title>[Riding therapy in the rehabilitation of mobility-impaired children].</title>         
   <link>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27522837?dopt=Abstract</link>    
   <description>

<![CDATA[<table border="0" width="100%"><tr><td align="left"/><td align="right"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=27522837%22>Related Articles</a></td></tr></table>

       <p><b>[Riding therapy in the rehabilitation of mobility-impaired children].</b></p>          
       <p>Duodecim. 2016;132(13-14):1279-85</p>
       <p>Authors:  Mäenpää H, Kela K, Sätilä H</p>
       <p>Abstract<br/>
       Riding therapy is a comprehensive and functional form of rehabilitation, in which the rehabilitee, the horse and the riding therapist collaborate in order to achieve individually assigned goals that support rehabilitation. In Finland, riding therapy is therapeutic rehabilitation carried out by riding therapists who have undergone approved training. The therapy is mainly implemented in an individual form, but small group working is also applied, e.g. in the form of pair therapy and therapeutic vaulting. In Europe, this form of rehabilitation has been divided into hippotherapy supporting motor functions and heilpedagogical riding therapy functioning in support of upbringing.<br/>
       </p><p>PMID: 27522837 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]</p>
   ]]></description>
   <author> Mäenpää H, Kela K, Sätilä H</author>
   <category>Duodecim</category>
   <guid isPermaLink="false">PubMed:27522837</guid>

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   <title>Different horse's paces during hippotherapy on spatio-temporal parameters of gait in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy: A feasibility study.</title>         
   <link>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27518920?dopt=Abstract</link>    
   <description>

<![CDATA[<table border="0" width="100%"><tr><td align="left"><a href="https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0891-4222(16)30166-4%22><img src="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/query/egifs/http:--linkinghub.elsevier.com-ihub-images-PubMedLink.gif" border="0"/></a> </td><td align="right"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=27518920%22>Related Articles</a></td></tr></table>

       <p><b>Different horse's paces during hippotherapy on spatio-temporal parameters of gait in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy: A feasibility study.</b></p>          
       <p>Res Dev Disabil. 2016 Aug 9;59:65-72</p>
       <p>Authors:  Antunes FN, Pinho AS, Kleiner AF, Salazar AP, Eltz GD, de Oliveira Junior AA, Cechetti F, Galli M, Pagnussat AS</p>
       <p>Abstract<br/>
       Hippotherapy is often carried out for the rehabilitation of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), with the horse riding at a walking pace. This study aimed to explore the immediate effects of a hippotherapy protocol using a walk-trot pace on spatio-temporal gait parameters and muscle tone in children with Bilateral Spastic CP (BS-CP). Ten children diagnosed with BS-CP and 10 healthy aged-matched children (reference group) took part in this study. The children with BS-CP underwent two sessions of hippotherapy for one week of washout between them. Two protocols (lasting 30min) were applied on separate days: Protocol 1: the horse's pace was a walking pace; and Protocol 2: the horse's pace was a walk-trot pace. Children from the reference group were not subjected to treatment. A wireless inertial measurement unit measured gait spatio-temporal parameters before and after each session. The Modified Ashworth Scale was applied for muscle tone measurement of hip adductors. The participants underwent the gait assessment on a path with surface irregularities (ecological context). The comparisons between BS-CP and the reference group found differences in all spatio-temporal parameters, except for gait velocity. Within-group analysis of children with BS-CP showed that the swing phase did not change after the walk pace and after the walk-trot pace. The percentage of rolling phase and double support improved after the walk-trot. The spasticity of the hip adductors was significantly reduced as an immediate result of both protocols, but this decrease was more evident after the walk-trot. The walk-trot protocol is feasible and is able to induce an immediate effect that improves the gait spatio-temporal parameters and the hip adductors spasticity.<br/>
       </p><p>PMID: 27518920 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]</p>
   ]]></description>
   <author> Antunes FN, Pinho AS, Kleiner AF, Salazar AP, Eltz GD, de Oliveira Junior AA, Cechetti F, Galli M, Pagnussat AS</author>
   <category>Res Dev Disabil</category>
   <guid isPermaLink="false">PubMed:27518920</guid>

</item> <item>

   <title>Effects of hippotherapy on body functions, activities and participation in children with cerebral palsy based on ICF-CY assessments.</title>         
   <link>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27440177?dopt=Abstract</link>    
   <description>

<![CDATA[<table border="0" width="100%"><tr><td align="left"><a href="http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09638288.2016.1207108%22><img src="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/query/egifs/http:--www.tandfonline.com-templates-jsp-_style2-_tandf-images-tandf100x25.gif" border="0"/></a> </td><td align="right"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=27440177%22>Related Articles</a></td></tr></table>

       <p><b>Effects of hippotherapy on body functions, activities and participation in children with cerebral palsy based on ICF-CY assessments.</b></p>          
       <p>Disabil Rehabil. 2016 Jul 20;:1-11</p>
       <p>Authors:  Hsieh YL, Yang CC, Sun SH, Chan SY, Wang TH, Luo HJ</p>
       <p>Abstract<br/>
       PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of hippotherapy on body functions, activities, and participation in children with CP of various functional levels by using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth (ICF-CY) checklist.<br/>
       METHODS: Fourteen children with cerebral palsy (CP) (3-8 years of age) were recruited for a 36-week study composed of baseline, intervention, and withdrawal phases (12 weeks for each phase, ABA design). Hippotherapy was implemented for 30 min once weekly for 12 consecutive weeks during the intervention phase. Body Functions (b) and Activities and Participation (d) components of the ICF-CY checklist were used as outcome measures at the initial interview and at the end of each phase.<br/>
       RESULTS: Over the 12 weeks of hippotherapy, significant improvements in ICF-CY qualifiers were found in neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions (b7), mobility (d4) and major life areas (d8) and, in particular, mobility of joint functions (b710), muscle tone functions (b735), involuntary movement reaction functions (b755), involuntary movement functions (b765), and play (d811) (all p < 0.05) when compared with baseline.<br/>
       CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the beneficial effects of hippotherapy on body functions, activities, and participation in children with CP. Implications for Rehabilitation ICF-CY provides a comprehensive overview of functioning and disability and constitutes a universal language for identifying the benefits of hippotherapy in areas of functioning and disability in children with CP. In children with CP, hippotherapy encourages a more complementary approach that extends beyond their impairments and limitations in body functions, activities, and participation. The effect of hippotherapy was distinct from GMFCS levels and the majority of improvements were present in children with GMFCS levels I-III.<br/>
       </p><p>PMID: 27440177 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]</p>
   ]]></description>
   <author> Hsieh YL, Yang CC, Sun SH, Chan SY, Wang TH, Luo HJ</author>
   <category>Disabil Rehabil</category>
   <guid isPermaLink="false">PubMed:27440177</guid>

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   <title>The current state of physical activity and exercise programs in German-speaking, Swiss psychiatric hospitals: results from a brief online survey.</title>         
   <link>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27350748?dopt=Abstract</link>    
   <description>

<![CDATA[<table border="0" width="100%"><tr><td align="left"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/27350748/%22><img src="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/query/egifs/https:--www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov-corehtml-pmc-pmcgifs-pubmed-pmc.gif" border="0"/></a> </td><td align="right"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=27350748%22>Related Articles</a></td></tr></table>

       <p><b>The current state of physical activity and exercise programs in German-speaking, Swiss psychiatric hospitals: results from a brief online survey.</b></p>          
       <p>Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016;12:1309-17</p>
       <p>Authors:  Brand S, Colledge F, Beeler N, Pühse U, Kalak N, Sadeghi Bahmani D, Mikoteit T, Holsboer-Trachsler E, Gerber M</p>
       <p>Abstract<br/>
       BACKGROUND: Physical activity and exercise programs (PAEPs) are an important factor in increasing and maintaining physical and mental health. This holds particularly true for patients with psychiatric disorders undergoing treatment in a psychiatric hospital. To understand whether the benefits reported in the literature are mirrored in current treatment modalities, the aim of the present study was to assess the current state of PAEPs in psychiatric hospitals in the German-speaking part of Switzerland.<br/>
       METHODS: All psychiatric hospitals (N=55) in the German-speaking part of Switzerland were contacted in spring 2014. Staff responsible for PAEPs were asked to complete an online questionnaire covering questions related to PAEPs such as type, frequency, staff training, treatment rationale, importance of PAEPs within the treatment strategy, and possible avenues to increase PAEPs.<br/>
       RESULTS: Staff members of 48 different psychiatric hospitals completed the survey. Hospitals provided the following therapeutic treatments: relaxation techniques (100%), sports therapy (97%), activity-related psychotherapeutic interventions (95%), physiotherapy (85%), body therapies (59%), far-east techniques (57%), and hippotherapy (22%). Frequencies ranged from once/week to five times/week. Approximately 25% of patients participated in the PAEPs. Interventions were offered irrespective of psychiatric disorders. PAEP providers wanted and needed more vocational training.<br/>
       CONCLUSION: All participating psychiatric hospitals offer a broad variety of PAEPs in their treatment curricula. However, the majority of inpatients do not participate in PAEPs. Furthermore, those who do participate cannot continue to do so following discharge. PAEP providers need specific extended vocational trainings and believe that the potential of PA should be improved.<br/>
       </p><p>PMID: 27350748 [PubMed]</p>
   ]]></description>
   <author> Brand S, Colledge F, Beeler N, Pühse U, Kalak N, Sadeghi Bahmani D, Mikoteit T, Holsboer-Trachsler E, Gerber M</author>
   <category>Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat</category>
   <guid isPermaLink="false">PubMed:27350748</guid>

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   <title>Effects of Hippotherapy on Psychosocial Aspects in Children With Cerebral Palsy and Their Caregivers: A Pilot Study.</title>         
   <link>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27152272?dopt=Abstract</link>    
   <description>

<![CDATA[<table border="0" width="100%"><tr><td align="left"><a href="http://www.e-arm.org/journal/viewJournal.html?year=2016&vol=040&page=230%22><img src="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/query/egifs/http:--www.e-arm.org-image-arm_linkout.jpg" border="0"/></a> <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/27152272/%22><img src="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/query/egifs/https:--www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov-corehtml-pmc-pmcgifs-pubmed-pmc.gif" border="0"/></a> </td><td align="right"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=27152272%22>Related Articles</a></td></tr></table>

       <p><b>Effects of Hippotherapy on Psychosocial Aspects in Children With Cerebral Palsy and Their Caregivers: A Pilot Study.</b></p>          
       <p>Ann Rehabil Med. 2016 Apr;40(2):230-6</p>
       <p>Authors:  Jang CH, Joo MC, Noh SE, Lee SY, Lee DB, Lee SH, Kim HK, Park HI</p>
       <p>Abstract<br/>
       OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of hippotherapy on psychosocial and emotional parameters in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their caregivers.<br/>
       METHODS: Eight children with CP were recruited (three males and five females; mean age, 7.3 years; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 1-3). Hippotherapy sessions were conducted for 30 minutes once weekly for 10 consecutive weeks in an indoor riding arena. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS), and the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index were evaluated. All children were evaluated by the Children's Depression Inventory, Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, State Anxiety Inventory for Children, Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, and the Korean-Satisfaction with Life Scale (K-SWLS). Their caregivers were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the K-SWLS. We assessed children and their caregivers with the same parameters immediately after hippotherapy.<br/>
       RESULTS: Significant improvements on the GMFM, dimension E in the GMFM, and the PBS were observed after hippotherapy compared with the baseline assessment (p<0.05). However, no improvements were detected in the psychosocial or emotional parameters in children with CP or their caregivers. None of the participants showed any adverse effects or accidents during the 10 weeks hippotherapy program.<br/>
       CONCLUSIONS: Hippotherapy was safe and effectively improved gross motor and balance domains in children with CP. However, no improvements were observed in psychosocial or emotional parameters.<br/>
       </p><p>PMID: 27152272 [PubMed]</p>
   ]]></description>
   <author> Jang CH, Joo MC, Noh SE, Lee SY, Lee DB, Lee SH, Kim HK, Park HI</author>
   <category>Ann Rehabil Med</category>
   <guid isPermaLink="false">PubMed:27152272</guid>

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   <title>Intervention for an Adolescent With Cerebral Palsy During Period of Accelerated Growth.</title>         
   <link>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27088701?dopt=Abstract</link>    
   <description>

<![CDATA[<table border="0" width="100%"><tr><td align="left"><a href="http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0898-5669&volume=28&issue=1&spage=117%22><img src="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/query/egifs/http:--pt.wkhealth.com-pt-pt-core-template-journal-lwwgateway-images-pmlogoPubMed.jpg" border="0"/></a> </td><td align="right"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=27088701%22>Related Articles</a></td></tr></table>

       <p><b>Intervention for an Adolescent With Cerebral Palsy During Period of Accelerated Growth.</b></p>          
       <p>Pediatr Phys Ther. 2016;28(1):117-25</p>
       <p>Authors:  Reubens R, Silkwood-Sherer DJ</p>
       <p>Abstract<br/>
       PURPOSE: The purpose of this case report was to describe changes in body functions and structures, activities, and participation after a biweekly 10-week program of home physical therapy and hippotherapy using a weighted compressor belt.<br/>
       PARTICIPANT: A 13-year-old boy with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function Classification System level II, was referred because of accelerated growth and functional impairments that limited daily activities.<br/>
       OUTCOME MEASURES: The Modified Ashworth Scale, passive range of motion, 1-Minute Walk Test, Timed Up and Down Stairs, Pediatric Balance Scale, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory Computer Adaptive Test, and Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire 17 were examined at baseline, 5, and 10 weeks.<br/>
       OUTCOMES: Data at 5 and 10 weeks demonstrated positive changes in passive range of motion, balance, strength, functional activities, and motivation, with additional improvements in endurance and speed after 10 weeks.<br/>
       CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This report reveals enhanced body functions and structures and activities and improved participation and motivation.<br/>
       </p><p>PMID: 27088701 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]</p>
   ]]></description>
   <author> Reubens R, Silkwood-Sherer DJ</author>
   <category>Pediatr Phys Ther</category>
   <guid isPermaLink="false">PubMed:27088701</guid>

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   <title>Use of Hippotherapy With a Boy After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Study.</title>         
   <link>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27088700?dopt=Abstract</link>    
   <description>

<![CDATA[<table border="0" width="100%"><tr><td align="left"><a href="http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0898-5669&volume=28&issue=1&spage=109%22><img src="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/query/egifs/http:--pt.wkhealth.com-pt-pt-core-template-journal-lwwgateway-images-pmlogoPubMed.jpg" border="0"/></a> </td><td align="right"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=27088700%22>Related Articles</a></td></tr></table>

       <p><b>Use of Hippotherapy With a Boy After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Study.</b></p>          
       <p>Pediatr Phys Ther. 2016;28(1):109-16</p>
       <p>Authors:  Erdman EA, Pierce SR</p>
       <p>Abstract<br/>
       PURPOSE: The purpose of this case report was to describe the use of hippotherapy with a boy who sustained a brain injury.<br/>
       KEY POINTS: A 13-year-old boy, 6 months after traumatic brain injury received 12 physical therapy sessions, which included hippotherapy. Improvements were noted in balance, strength, gross motor skills, gait speed, functional mobility, and reported participation.<br/>
       SUMMARY: Hippotherapy used with a 13-year-old boy after traumatic brain injury may have had a positive effect in the body structure, activity, and participation domains.<br/>
       </p><p>PMID: 27088700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]</p>
   ]]></description>
   <author> Erdman EA, Pierce SR</author>
   <category>Pediatr Phys Ther</category>
   <guid isPermaLink="false">PubMed:27088700</guid>

</item> <item>

   <title>Hippotherapy: Remuneration issues impair the offering of this therapeutic strategy at Southern California rehabilitation centers.</title>         
   <link>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27061169?dopt=Abstract</link>    
   <description>

<![CDATA[<table border="0" width="100%"><tr><td align="left"><a href="http://content.iospress.com/openurl?genre=article&id=doi:10.3233/NRE-161332%22><img src="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/query/egifs/http:--ebooks.iospress.nl-content-images-ios-pubmed.gif" border="0"/></a> </td><td align="right"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=27061169%22>Related Articles</a></td></tr></table>

       <p><b>Hippotherapy: Remuneration issues impair the offering of this therapeutic strategy at Southern California rehabilitation centers.</b></p>          
       <p>NeuroRehabilitation. 2016 Apr 6;38(4):411-7</p>
       <p>Authors:  Pham C, Bitonte R</p>
       <p>Abstract<br/>
       BACKGROUND: Hippotherapy is the use of equine movement in physical, occupational, or speech therapy in order to obtain functional improvements in patients. Studies show improvement in motor function and sensory processing for patients with a variety of neuromuscular disabilities, developmental disorders, or skeletal impairments as a result of using hippotherapy.<br/>
       OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study is to identify the pervasiveness of hippotherapy in Southern California, and any factors that impair its utilization.<br/>
       METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two rehabilitation centers in the Southern California counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Kern County were identified, and surveyed to ascertain if hippotherapy is utilized, and if not, why not.<br/>
       RESULTS: Through a review of forty facilities that responded to our inquiry, our study indicates that the majority of rehabilitation centers are familiar with hippotherapy, however, only seven have reported that hippotherapy is indeed available as an option in therapy at their centers.<br/>
       CONCLUSION: It is concluded that hippotherapy, used in a broad based array of physical and sensory disorders, is limited in its ability to be utilized, primarily due to remuneration issues.<br/>
       </p><p>PMID: 27061169 [PubMed - in process]</p>
   ]]></description>
   <author> Pham C, Bitonte R</author>
   <category>NeuroRehabilitation</category>
   <guid isPermaLink="false">PubMed:27061169</guid>

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   <title>Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program.</title>         
   <link>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27004819?dopt=Abstract</link>    
   <description>

<![CDATA[<table border="0" width="100%"><tr><td align="left"><a href="https://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.1068%22><img src="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/query/egifs/http:--ajas.info-image-banner-LinkOut_AJAS.gif" border="0"/></a> <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/27004819/%22><img src="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/query/egifs/https:--www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov-corehtml-pmc-pmcgifs-pubmed-pmc.gif" border="0"/></a> </td><td align="right"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=27004819%22>Related Articles</a></td></tr></table>

       <p><b>Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program.</b></p>          
       <p>Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2016 Jun;29(6):895-900</p>
       <p>Authors:  Kang OD, Yun YM</p>
       <p>Abstract<br/>
       The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses' results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. <br/>
       </p><p>PMID: 27004819 [PubMed]</p>
   ]]></description>
   <author> Kang OD, Yun YM</author>
   <category>Asian-Australas J Anim Sci</category>
   <guid isPermaLink="false">PubMed:27004819</guid>

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References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Hippotherapy.www.childrenstheraplay.org (accessed 10 Dec.2016)
  2. Sabrina Hrabe, (2011), Hippotherapy:fckLRHow does it Affect Children with Mental and fckLRPhysical Impairments, EDEC 420