Pes Planus

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Original Editors - Uchechukwu Chukwuemeka

Top Contributors - Uchechukwu Chukwuemeka and Kim Jackson  


Pes planus also known as flat foot is the loss of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot, heel valgus deformity, and medial talar prominence.[1] The deformity is usually asymptomatic and resolves spontaneously in the first decade of life, or occasionally progresses into a painful rigid form which causes significant disability.


Previous studies[2][3][4] indicate the prevalence of flatfoot between < 1% and 28% at certain age groups


The etiology of flatfoot has several factors implicated. These factors are Talipes equinovarus deformity, ligamentous laxity, foot equinus deformity, tibial torsional deformity, presence of the accessory navicular bone, congenital vertical talus, and tarsal coalition. Obesity is also a probable factor related to pes planus.[5][6]


Characteristics/Clinical Presentation

Associated Co-morbidities

Medical Management

Physical Therapy Management


  1. Troiano G, Nante N, Citarelli GL. Pes planus and pes cavus in Southern Italy: a 5 years study. Ann Ist Super Sanità. 2017;53(2):142-145. DOI: 10.4415/ANN_17_02_10
  2. Pfeiffer M, Kotz R, Ledl T, Hauser G, Sluga M. Prevalence of flat foot in preschool-aged children. Pediatrics. 2006;118(2):634-9.
  3. Abdel-Fattah MM, Hassanin MM, Felembane FA, Nassaane MT. Flat foot among Saudi Arabian army recruits: prevalence and risk factors. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2006;12(1-2):211-7.
  4. Chen JP, Chung MJ, Wang MJ. Flatfoot prevalence and foot dimensions of 5- to 13-year-old children in Taiwan. Foot Ankle Intern. 2009;30(4):326-32
  5. Buerk AA, Albert MC. Advances in pediatric foot and ankle treatment. Curr Opin Orthop. 2001;12:437-42.
  6. Wearing SC, Hennig EM, Byrne NM, Steele JR, Hills AP. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with obesity: a biomechanical perspective. Obesity reviews: an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 2006;7(3):239-50.